We report what is believed to be the first demonstration of measurement of tropospheric temperature profiles in daytime by use of a high-spectral-resolution Rayleigh–Mie lidar at an eye-safe wavelength of 355 nm. Atmospheric temperature is determined from the linewidth of the Rayleigh spectrum. Two Rayleigh signals are detected with Fabry–Perot etalon filters with a dual-pass optical layout. The Mie signal is detected with a third etalon filter for correcting the Mie component in the Rayleigh signals. The temperature statistical uncertainties are below 1 K up to a height of 3 km in nighttime and 2 km in daytime with a relatively compact system that uses laser energy of 180 mJ and a 25-cm telescope. Good agreement between lidar and radiosonde measurements is obtained.
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