Abstract

Using the all-optical poling method, we observed the formation of a surface-relief grating (SRG) in an amorphous polymer film containing azo dye molecules in side chain positions. The experiment consists of a seeding-type process. We used a recently described experimental setup that permits a periodic nonlinear pattern to be produced by the index dispersion of glass. The particular configuration permits photoinduced translation diffusion of the azo chromophores to be observed as the origin of the SRG formation. Analyses of the gratings recorded by use of s (TE) and p (TM) polarization of the writing beams are conducted by atomic-force microscopy. The effect is attributed to mass transport from regions of high isomerization activity to regions of lower activity.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2002 (5)

A. Apostoluk, D. Chapron, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, G. Gadret, J.-M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, and B. Sahraoui, Opt. Lett. 27, 2028 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Sertova, I. Petkov, C. Fiorini, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 374, 77 (2002).

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Metals 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kluge, F. Budde, I. Dohnke, P. Rechsteiner, and J. Hulliger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, T. Takamatsu, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 27, 1324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Tsutsumi, J. Yamamoto, and W. Sakai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

C. Fiorini and J. M. Nunzi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 286, 415 (1998).

M. Adameck, R. Blum, and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J.-M. Nunzi, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 71 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. R. C. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 2502 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

Adameck, M.

M. Adameck, R. Blum, and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Apostoluk, A.

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blum, R.

M. Adameck, R. Blum, and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Budde, F.

S. Kluge, F. Budde, I. Dohnke, P. Rechsteiner, and J. Hulliger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chapron, D.

Charra, F.

Che, Y.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dohnke, I.

S. Kluge, F. Budde, I. Dohnke, P. Rechsteiner, and J. Hulliger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, T. J.

Egami, C.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

M. Adameck, R. Blum, and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

N. Sertova, I. Petkov, C. Fiorini, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 374, 77 (2002).

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J.-M. Nunzi, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 71 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Fiorini and J. M. Nunzi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 286, 415 (1998).

C. Fiorini, F. Charra, J.-M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1984 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini-Debuisschert, C.

Fujimura, H.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

Gadret, G.

Holme, N. R. C.

Hulliger, J.

S. Kluge, F. Budde, I. Dohnke, P. Rechsteiner, and J. Hulliger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hvilsted, S.

Idiart, E.

Jiang, X. L.

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 2502 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

Kaneko, T.

Kawata, S.

Kawata, Y.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 2502 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kluge, S.

S. Kluge, F. Budde, I. Dohnke, P. Rechsteiner, and J. Hulliger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

Kumar, J.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 2502 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

Lee, T. S.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lefin, P.

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J.-M. Nunzi, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 71 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 2502 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

Martin, G.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Metals 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, O.

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Naydenova, I.

Nikolova, L.

Nunzi, J. M.

C. Fiorini and J. M. Nunzi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 286, 415 (1998).

Nunzi, J.-M.

Okamoto, N.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Österberg, U.

Petkov, I.

N. Sertova, I. Petkov, C. Fiorini, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 374, 77 (2002).

Raimond, P.

Ramanujam, P. S.

Rechsteiner, P.

S. Kluge, F. Budde, I. Dohnke, P. Rechsteiner, and J. Hulliger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sahraoui, B.

Sakai, W.

N. Tsutsumi, J. Yamamoto, and W. Sakai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sertova, N.

N. Sertova, I. Petkov, C. Fiorini, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 374, 77 (2002).

Soulier, L.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Metals 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Sugihara, O.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takamatsu, T.

Todorov, T.

Tom, H. W. K.

Toussaere, E.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Metals 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 2502 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchimori, M.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, N.

N. Tsutsumi, J. Yamamoto, and W. Sakai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, O.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, J.

N. Tsutsumi, J. Yamamoto, and W. Sakai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Metals 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, D. Y. Kim, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 2502 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Adameck, R. Blum, and M. Eich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2884 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Kluge, F. Budde, I. Dohnke, P. Rechsteiner, and J. Hulliger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 247 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Fiorini and J. M. Nunzi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 286, 415 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, and O. Watanabe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsutsumi, J. Yamamoto, and W. Sakai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2264 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

N. Sertova, I. Petkov, C. Fiorini, P. Raimond, and J.-M. Nunzi, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 374, 77 (2002).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J.-M. Nunzi, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 71 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Metals (1)

G. Martin, E. Toussaere, L. Soulier, and J. Zyss, Synth. Metals 127, 49 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Real-time growth and lifetime of the SH generated signal (in arbitrary units) in p-polarization and s-polarization writing beam configurations. Negative times correspond to the seeding preparation phase. At time zero the seeding is stopped. Positive times are related to the study of the temporal decay of the photoinduced χ2 susceptibility.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM topographic image and cross section of a SRG induced (a) after 28 h of irradiation in a Disperse Red 1/poly(methyl methacrylate) 35/65 thin film in a p-polarization writing beam configuration and (b) after 46 h of irradiation in an s-polarization configuration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the creation of a SRG by all-optical poling. Continuous curve, modulation of the temporal average cube E3t of the polar field with period Λ (the polar field is a coherent superposition of two beams at fundamental and SH frequencies). Dotted arrows, antiparallel orientation (under s polarization) of molecules to minimize their interaction with the incident field. Dashed arrows, directions of molecular migration once the molecular orientation distribution reaches its stationary level. Dotted curve, modulation h of the sample surface with period Λ/2, induced by photoinduced mass transport. D, diameter of the interaction region.

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