Abstract

We demonstrate quasi-phase-matched (QPM) second-harmonic generation (SHG) at the optical communication wavelengths with side-chain polymer waveguides. A ridge waveguide structure is designed to support fundamental mode guiding at both the pump and the second harmonics, leading to a high field overlap integral of the guided modes. The nonlinearity contrast in the +/0 type QPM waveguide is maximized under a QPM poling electrode width of nearly half the coherence length. Using these configurations, we record a normalized SHG efficiency of 2.2% W-1 cm-2 in the polymer waveguide.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1061 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. H. Chou, B. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, J. Y. Do, and M.-H. Lee, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper NLWC4.
  9. C. C. Teng, Appl. Opt. 32, 1051 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M.-H. Lee, J. J. Ju, S. Park, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, ETRI J. 24, 259 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Kim, J. J. Ju, and M.-S. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. “Distributions of electric field and induced nonlinearity in periodic poling,” (to be published).

2002 (1)

M.-H. Lee, J. J. Ju, S. Park, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, ETRI J. 24, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. H. Chou, B. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1061 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Antoniades, N.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brener, B.

M. H. Chou, B. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brinker, W.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chaban, E. E.

M. H. Chou, B. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. H.

M. H. Chou, B. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Christman, S. B.

M. H. Chou, B. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diemeer, M.

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Do, J. Y.

M.-H. Lee, J. J. Ju, S. Park, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, ETRI J. 24, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, J. Y. Do, and M.-H. Lee, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper NLWC4.

Fejer, M. M.

M. H. Chou, B. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feuer, B.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Flipse, M. C.

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haas, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Horsthuis, W. H. G.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, M.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J. J.

M.-H. Lee, J. J. Ju, S. Park, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, ETRI J. 24, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, J. J. Ju, and M.-S. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. “Distributions of electric field and induced nonlinearity in periodic poling,” (to be published).

J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, J. Y. Do, and M.-H. Lee, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper NLWC4.

Karim, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khanarian, G.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, J. J. Ju, and M.-S. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. “Distributions of electric field and induced nonlinearity in periodic poling,” (to be published).

Kim, M.-S.

J. Kim, J. J. Ju, and M.-S. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. “Distributions of electric field and induced nonlinearity in periodic poling,” (to be published).

Koza, M. A.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

M.-H. Lee, J. J. Ju, S. Park, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, ETRI J. 24, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, J. Y. Do, and M.-H. Lee, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper NLWC4.

Möhlmann, G.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Möhlmann, G. R.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

B. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1061 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Otomo, A.

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

M.-H. Lee, J. J. Ju, S. Park, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, ETRI J. 24, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, J. Y. Do, and M.-H. Lee, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper NLWC4.

Park, S. K.

M.-H. Lee, J. J. Ju, S. Park, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, ETRI J. 24, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, J. Y. Do, and M.-H. Lee, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper NLWC4.

Rajhel, A.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ramamurthy, B.

B. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1061 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teng, C. C.

Yilmaz, S.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, W. Brinker, S. Yilmaz, S. Bauer, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139 (1996).
[CrossRef]

ETRI J. (1)

M.-H. Lee, J. J. Ju, S. Park, J. Y. Do, and S. K. Park, ETRI J. 24, 259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

B. Ramamurthy and B. Mukherjee, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 16, 1061 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. H. Chou, B. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Kim, J. J. Ju, and M.-S. Kim, J. Appl. Phys. “Distributions of electric field and induced nonlinearity in periodic poling,” (to be published).

J. J. Ju, S. Park, S. K. Park, J. Y. Do, and M.-H. Lee, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper NLWC4.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of the (a) PEI-RDAS and (b) slab waveguide losses. The slab has a structure with a 5µm lower clad (NOA 61) and a 3µm core (PEI-RDAS) thickness.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ridge structure of (a) the polymer waveguide and the near-field guided modes of the pump at (b) 1.55 µm and (c) the SHG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Waveguide geometry used to calculate (a) the effective and (b) the calculated field distribution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical efficiency trend and experimental SHG efficiencies for several electrode widths in the polymer waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output power spectra of the pump and the SHG in the polymer waveguide.

Metrics