Abstract

We describe a dispersion-free high-speed scanning optical delay line that is suitable for real-time optical coherence tomography, in particular, when an ultrabroadband light source is used. The delay line is based on all-reflective optics consisting of two flat and one curved mirrors. We achieve optical path-length scanning by oscillating one of the two flat mirrors with a resonant galvanometer. The delay line is compact and easy to implement. A total scanning depth of 1.50 mm with an 89% duty ratio, a maximal scanning speed of 9.1 m/s, and a 4.1-kHz repetition rate has been demonstrated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Xiumei Liu, Michael J. Cobb, and Xingde Li, "Rapid scanning all-reflective optical delay line for real-time optical coherence tomography: erratum," Opt. Lett. 30, 1744-1744 (2005)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-30-13-1744

References

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2003 (3)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Giannotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, and R. P. Salathe, Opt. Commun. 154, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatts, Opt. Express 3, 219 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (4)

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 22, 1811 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, B. Franze, and H. J. Tiziani, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Su, Opt. Lett. 22, 665 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

H. Harde and H. Burggraf, Opt. Commun. 38, 211 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Baumgartner, A.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bleuler, H.

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Giannotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, and R. P. Salathe, Opt. Commun. 154, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Burggraf, H.

H. Harde and H. Burggraf, Opt. Commun. 38, 211 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, N. G.

Chen, Z. P.

Chudoba, C.

Delachenal, N.

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Giannotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, and R. P. Salathe, Opt. Commun. 154, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Fercher, A. F.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischer, M.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, B. Franze, and H. J. Tiziani, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franze, B.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, B. Franze, and H. J. Tiziani, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Ghanta, R. K.

Giannotti, R.

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Giannotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, and R. P. Salathe, Opt. Commun. 154, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gianotti, R.

N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harde, H.

H. Harde and H. Burggraf, Opt. Commun. 38, 211 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P. L.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatts, J. A.

Kartner, F. X.

Ko, T. H.

Kulkarni, M. D.

Li, X. D.

Limberger, H.

N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

Morgner, U.

Nelson, J. S.

Niblack, W. K.

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

Rollins, M.

Salathe, R. P.

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Giannotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, and R. P. Salathe, Opt. Commun. 154, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, D. D.

Schenk, J. O.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, E. D. J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, B.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szydlo, J.

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Giannotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, and R. P. Salathe, Opt. Commun. 154, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Tiziani, H. J.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, B. Franze, and H. J. Tiziani, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ung-arunyawee, R.

Walti, R.

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Giannotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, and R. P. Salathe, Opt. Commun. 154, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. M.

Windecker, R.

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, B. Franze, and H. J. Tiziani, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zhao, Y. H.

Zhu, Q.

Zvyagin, A. V.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. Delachenal, R. Gianotti, R. Walti, H. Limberger, and R. P. Salathe, Electron. Lett. 33, 2059 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. K. Hitzenberger, A. Baumgartner, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 144 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. Windecker, M. Fleischer, B. Franze, and H. J. Tiziani, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 967 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Szydlo, N. Delachenal, R. Giannotti, R. Walti, H. Bleuler, and R. P. Salathe, Opt. Commun. 154, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Harde and H. Burggraf, Opt. Commun. 38, 211 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the rapid-scanning all-reflective optical delay line. Collimated light is incident upon a scanning mirror that is tilted at an angle θ0 θ0=18° in its neutral position, and the incident beam offset is h h=4.3 mm. α=12° and β=11.86° are the tilting angles of the curved mirror and of the stationary flat mirror, respectively. The scanning flat mirror is placed near the focal plane of the curved mirror (radius R=100 mm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Relationship of the scanning depth to the time delay of the OCT interference signal. The measured data points were fitted to a straight line of slope 8.9 m/s, which is close to the maximum scanning velocity of 9.1 m/s near the middle of the scanning range. The scanning mirror is driven by a sinusoidal wave at 2.05 kHz. (b) Measured Doppler frequency as a function of scanning depth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCT image of a stack of six cover glasses. The 0.92-mm total thickness of the six cover glasses with a measured refractive index of 1.46 corresponds to a total scanning depth of 1.34 mm. The lines across the middle of the image represent the interfaces between the cover glasses where immersion oil was applied. The bright lines at the top and the bottom correspond to the glass–air interfaces, where the backreflection signal is much stronger than at the other interfaces.

Equations (2)

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lt=lθt=2htan θ-tan θ0=2htanθ0+θsc sin2πfsct-tan θ0.
Δlmax=lθ+θsc-lθ-θsc=2htanθ0+θsc-tanθ0-θsc.

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