Abstract

Holographic optical coherence imaging acquires en face images from successive depths inside scattering tissue. In a study of multicellular tumor spheroids the holographic features recorded from a fixed depth are observed to be time dependent, and they may be classified as variable or persistent. The ratio of variable to persistent features, as well as speckle correlation times, provides quantitative measures of the health of the tissue. Studies of rat osteogenic sarcoma tumor spheroids that have been subjected to metabolic and cross-polymerizing poisons provide quantitative differentiation among healthy, necrotic, and poisoned tissue. Organelle motility in healthy tissue appears as super-Brownian laser speckle, whereas chemically fixed tissue exhibits static speckle.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Sheppard and D. M. Shotton, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (BIOS Scientific, Oxford, England, 1997).
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2003 (2)

P. Yu, M. Mustata, P. M. W. French, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M. W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Opt. Commun. 219, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

S. Balasubramanian, I. Lahiri, Y. Ding, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. B 68, 863 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nolte, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. D. Briers, Opt. Eng. 32, 277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ansari, Z.

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M. W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Opt. Commun. 219, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, S.

S. Balasubramanian, I. Lahiri, Y. Ding, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. B 68, 863 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barry, N. P.

S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002).

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers, Opt. Eng. 32, 277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cubel, T.

Dainty, J. C.

S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

S. Balasubramanian, I. Lahiri, Y. Ding, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. B 68, 863 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dunsby, C.

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M. W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Opt. Commun. 219, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

French, P. M. W.

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M. W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Opt. Commun. 219, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, M. Mustata, P. M. W. French, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M. W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Opt. Commun. 219, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, S. C. W.

S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kwolek, K. M.

S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lahiri, I.

S. Balasubramanian, I. Lahiri, Y. Ding, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. B 68, 863 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, M. R.

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M. W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Opt. Commun. 219, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, M. Mustata, P. M. W. French, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nolte, T. Cubel, L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Balasubramanian, I. Lahiri, Y. Ding, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. B 68, 863 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mustata, M.

P. Yu, M. Mustata, P. M. W. French, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, D. D.

P. Yu, M. Mustata, P. M. W. French, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M. W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Opt. Commun. 219, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nolte, T. Cubel, L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 195 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Balasubramanian, I. Lahiri, Y. Ding, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. B 68, 863 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Nolte, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L.

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M. W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Opt. Commun. 219, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

Sheppard, C.

C. Sheppard and D. M. Shotton, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (BIOS Scientific, Oxford, England, 1997).

Shotton, D. M.

C. Sheppard and D. M. Shotton, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (BIOS Scientific, Oxford, England, 1997).

Tearney, G. J.

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002).

Turek, J. J.

P. Yu, M. Mustata, P. M. W. French, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

P. Yu, M. Mustata, P. M. W. French, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M. W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Opt. Commun. 219, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Balasubramanian, I. Lahiri, Y. Ding, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. B 68, 863 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Yu, M. Mustata, P. M. W. French, J. J. Turek, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 575 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. C. W. Hyde, R. Jones, N. P. Barry, J. C. Dainty, P. M. W. French, K. M. Kwolek, D. D. Nolte, and M. R. Melloch, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 965 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. D. Nolte, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Dunsby, Y. Gu, Z. Ansari, P. M. W. French, L. Peng, P. Yu, M. R. Melloch, and D. D. Nolte, Opt. Commun. 219, 87 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. D. Briers, Opt. Eng. 32, 277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of Optical Coherence Tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002).

C. Sheppard and D. M. Shotton, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (BIOS Scientific, Oxford, England, 1997).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Average intensity (a) and maximum intensity (b) for 40 stopped frames in a healthy tumor at a depth of approximately 200 µm inside the tumor. These two images are used to define the feature map in (c) that shows 52% variable features and 48% persistent features.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variable–persistent feature maps for (a) healthy, (b) metabolically poisoned (sodium azide), and (c) fixed tissue (glutaldehyde) tumors, showing 52%, 22%, and 8% variable features, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Autocorrelation functions versus delay time for the three tumors of Fig. 2. The correlation times and strengths clearly distinguish among healthy, poisoned, and cross-linked tissue and may provide a quantitative diagnostic value of the health of the tissue.

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