Abstract

A nanometric source of second-harmonic (SH) light with unprecedented efficiency is demonstrated; it exploits the grazing-incidence illumination of a metal tip, which is conventionally used for atomic force microscopy, by 25-fs laser pulses of a high-energy Ti:sapphire oscillator. Tip scanning around the beam focus shows that the SH generation is strongly localized at its apex. The polarization dependence of the SH light complies with the model of an on-axis nonlinear oscillating dipole.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. C. L. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, and H. D. Hallen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2483 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 057401 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Labardi, S. Patanè, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 19, 159 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. V. Zayats and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 94 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. V. Zayats, T. Kalbrenner, V. Sandoghdar, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. B 61, 4545 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Takahashi and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3479 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. R. Libertun, R. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 39 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CThR3.

2003

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. Takahashi and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Zayats and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zayats, T. Kalbrenner, V. Sandoghdar, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. B 61, 4545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. L. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, and H. D. Hallen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 19, 159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1984

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Achermann, M.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Allegrini, M.

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Axt, V. M.

T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eshlaghi, S.

T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, A.

H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glanemann, M.

T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, T.

T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hallen, H. D.

C. L. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, and H. D. Hallen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hartschuh, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hettich, C.

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

Jahncke, C. L.

C. L. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, and H. D. Hallen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kalbrenner, T.

A. V. Zayats, T. Kalbrenner, V. Sandoghdar, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. B 61, 4545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

A. R. Libertun, R. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 39 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CThR3.

Kawata, S.

Kawata, Y.

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, T.

T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Labardi, M.

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Libertun, A. R.

A. R. Libertun, R. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 39 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CThR3.

Lienau, Ch.

T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, J.

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlynek, J.

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Zayats, T. Kalbrenner, V. Sandoghdar, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. B 61, 4545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

A. R. Libertun, R. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 39 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CThR3.

Nechay, B. A.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nesbitt, D. J.

H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O'Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

C. L. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, and H. D. Hallen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Patanè, S.

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Zayats, T. Kalbrenner, V. Sandoghdar, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. B 61, 4545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zayats and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, R.

A. R. Libertun, R. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 39 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CThR3.

Siegner, U.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

S. Takahashi and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wieck, A. D.

T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

S. Takahashi and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zayats and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Zayats, T. Kalbrenner, V. Sandoghdar, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. B 61, 4545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, and M. Allegrini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1469 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Jahncke, M. A. Paesler, and H. D. Hallen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2483 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi and A. V. Zayats, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Kawata, C. Xu, and W. Denk, J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1294 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

A. V. Zayats and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. Michaelis, C. Hettich, J. Mlynek, and V. Sandoghdar, Nature 405, 325 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

OSA Technical Digest Series

A. R. Libertun, R. Shelton, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 39 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CThR3.

Phys. Rev. B

A. V. Zayats, T. Kalbrenner, V. Sandoghdar, and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. B 61, 4545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the experimental setup. CH, mechanical chopper; VA, variable attenuator; WP, λ/2 wave plate; DBS, dichroic beam splitter; OBJ, microscope objective; CL, cantilever; PZT, piezoelectric scanner; I–V, current–voltage converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) FW and (b) SH mapping of tip scattering as a function of illumination position.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SH mapping of tip scattering as a function of illumination position for different FW polarizations: (a) 0°, (b) 30°, (c) 60°, and (d) 90°. (e) Plot of the SH power dependence on the polarization direction θ (diamonds) along with a superimposed cos4 θ fit (solid curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) xz map of the SH emission of the tip at θ=0°. (b) Calculated SH intensity of a Gaussian beam along the beam propagation direction. Cross-sectional profiles (diamonds) and Gaussian fits (solid curves) along the (c) z and (d) x directions, which intersect the peak of the collected SH emission shown in (a).

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