Abstract

An interferometric imaging setup is described that allows us to map the spatial distribution of the phase of a second-harmonic (SH) wave by using multimode laser sources with achromatic beam imaging of the fundamental and SH waves. Working distances >1 m and a robust setup allow experiments that were not possible before.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  2. K. H. Bennemann, Nonlinear Optics in Metals (Oxford University, London, 1998).
  3. V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, and H. Fuchs, Thin Solid Films 327–329, 241 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Uesu, S. Kurimura, and Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2165 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, A. V. Goltsev, and R. V. Pisarev, Nature 419, 818 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisental, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
  9. G. Berkovic, Y. R. Shen, G. Marowsky, and R. Steinhoff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 205 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, and M. Maat, Phys. Rev. B 66, 144102 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, Appl. Phys. B 63, 491 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. St. Leute, Th. Lottermoser, and D. Fröhlich, Opt. Lett. 24, 1520 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, New York, 1995), Chap. 4.3.3.
    [CrossRef]
  14. Definitions and derivations are based on root-mean-square values as in Ref. 13.
  15. G. Berkovic and E. Shvartsberg, Appl. Phys. B 53, 333 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, A. V. Goltsev, and R. V. Pisarev, Nature 419, 818 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, and M. Maat, Phys. Rev. B 66, 144102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, and H. Fuchs, Thin Solid Films 327–329, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, Appl. Phys. B 63, 491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Uesu, S. Kurimura, and Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. Berkovic and E. Shvartsberg, Appl. Phys. B 53, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisental, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).

1965 (1)

R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bennemann, K. H.

K. H. Bennemann, Nonlinear Optics in Metals (Oxford University, London, 1998).

Berkovic, G.

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, Appl. Phys. B 63, 491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Berkovic and E. Shvartsberg, Appl. Phys. B 53, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Berkovic, Y. R. Shen, G. Marowsky, and R. Steinhoff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, K.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisental, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).

Bloembergen, N.

R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bösch, M.

M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, and H. Fuchs, Thin Solid Films 327–329, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brillert, C.

M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, and H. Fuchs, Thin Solid Films 327–329, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ducuing, J.

R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Eisental, K. B.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisental, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).

Fiebig, M.

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, A. V. Goltsev, and R. V. Pisarev, Nature 419, 818 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, and M. Maat, Phys. Rev. B 66, 144102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flörsheimer, M.

M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, and H. Fuchs, Thin Solid Films 327–329, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fröhlich, D.

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, A. V. Goltsev, and R. V. Pisarev, Nature 419, 818 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, and M. Maat, Phys. Rev. B 66, 144102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

St. Leute, Th. Lottermoser, and D. Fröhlich, Opt. Lett. 24, 1520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, H.

M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, and H. Fuchs, Thin Solid Films 327–329, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goltsev, A. V.

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, A. V. Goltsev, and R. V. Pisarev, Nature 419, 818 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisental, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).

Hicks, J. M.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisental, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).

Kemnitz, K.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisental, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).

Kirilyuk, A.

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kirilyuk, V.

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurimura, S.

Y. Uesu, S. Kurimura, and Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leute, St.

Lottermoser, Th.

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, A. V. Goltsev, and R. V. Pisarev, Nature 419, 818 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, and M. Maat, Phys. Rev. B 66, 144102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

St. Leute, Th. Lottermoser, and D. Fröhlich, Opt. Lett. 24, 1520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maat, M.

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, and M. Maat, Phys. Rev. B 66, 144102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, New York, 1995), Chap. 4.3.3.
[CrossRef]

Marowsky, G.

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, Appl. Phys. B 63, 491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Berkovic, Y. R. Shen, G. Marowsky, and R. Steinhoff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, G. R.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisental, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).

Pisarev, R. V.

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, A. V. Goltsev, and R. V. Pisarev, Nature 419, 818 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasing, Th.

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzberg, E.

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, Appl. Phys. B 63, 491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

G. Berkovic, Y. R. Shen, G. Marowsky, and R. Steinhoff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 205 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Shvartsberg, E.

G. Berkovic and E. Shvartsberg, Appl. Phys. B 53, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steinhoff, R.

Stolle, R.

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, Appl. Phys. B 63, 491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uesu, Y.

Y. Uesu, S. Kurimura, and Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wierschem, M.

M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, and H. Fuchs, Thin Solid Films 327–329, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, New York, 1995), Chap. 4.3.3.
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Uesu, S. Kurimura, and Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, Appl. Phys. B 63, 491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Berkovic and E. Shvartsberg, Appl. Phys. B 53, 333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

V. Kirilyuk, A. Kirilyuk, and Th. Rasing, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2306 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Uesu, S. Kurimura, and Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisental, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, A. V. Goltsev, and R. V. Pisarev, Nature 419, 818 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Fiebig, D. Fröhlich, Th. Lottermoser, and M. Maat, Phys. Rev. B 66, 144102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. K. Chang, J. Ducuing, and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 6 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Flörsheimer, M. Bösch, C. Brillert, M. Wierschem, and H. Fuchs, Thin Solid Films 327–329, 241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Y. R. Shen, Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

K. H. Bennemann, Nonlinear Optics in Metals (Oxford University, London, 1998).

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, New York, 1995), Chap. 4.3.3.
[CrossRef]

Definitions and derivations are based on root-mean-square values as in Ref. 13.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup for phase-sensitive SHG with achromatic beam imaging: THG, third-harmonic generation; L, lens; P, polarizer (Glan prism); λ/2, half-wave plate; LPF, optical long-pass filter; C, cryostat; M, planar mirror; SPF, optical short-pass filter; TL, telephoto lens; A, analyzer (polarization sheet).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Visibility dependent on the position of the reference crystal at distances d and d as defined in Fig. 1. Filled circles, without beam imaging (solid curve, Gaussian fit); d=0 is the position of the sample; Vd=V-d was assumed. Open circles, with beam imaging; d=0 is the position of the image of the sample at d=120 cm. (b) Visibility dependent on the temporal delay between the sample and the reference waves. Filled diamonds, seeded OPO with a Lorentzian line shape and 0.05-meV spectral width. Open diamonds, nonseeded OPO with a Gaussian line shape and 1.5-meV spectral width. Dashed (solid) curves, exponential (Gaussian) fit to filled (open) data points; dotted line at 0.28 ps, delay from 7-mm quartz glass.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase-sensitive topography of antiferromagnetic 180° domains in HoMnO3 and YMnO3 at 2.455 eV and 6 K: (a) magnetically induced SHG on HoMnO3, (b) SHG on reference quartz, (c) SH intensity after superimposing light waves from (a) and (b). Dark and bright regions correspond to opposite domains. (d), (e) Antiferromagnetic domains in YMnO3 with a distance of (d) 0 cm and (e) 17 cm between the image of the sample and the position of the reference crystal.

Equations (3)

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ΔτΔν=f/4π,
αGaussτ=exp-τ2/2Δτ2, αLorentzτ=exp-2τ/Δτ,
Iφ=Isig+Iref+2αIsigIref1/2cosφ,

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