Abstract

Although femtosecond lasers have proved to be of great utility for micromachining within bulk transparent materials, little is known about the fundamental physics that drive the process. Depending on the laser intensity delivered to the sample, any of three types of feature can be written into the glass. We observed that in the intermediate regime there is a correlation among the negative sign of the effective index change, the presence of anisotropic reflection, and birefringence. We propose a model that can explain all three principal characteristics. Results show that the local index change can be as high as 10-1.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2002

2001

H. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, Opt. Lett. 26, 325 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, Opt. Lett. 26, 1726 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

Baumberg, J. J.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, Opt. Lett. 27, 2200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Bricchi, E.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, Opt. Lett. 27, 2200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chan, J. W.

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, in Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CThPDD.

Huser, T.

Inouye, H.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joenathan, C.

Juodkazis, S.

Kazansky, P. G.

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, Opt. Lett. 27, 2200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, in Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CThPDD.

Klappauf, B. G.

Krol, D. M.

Laporta, P.

Marangoni, M.

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mills, J. D.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, Opt. Lett. 27, 2200 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

Mitsuyu, T.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Osellame, R.

Polli, D.

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, in Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CThPDD.

Ramponi, R.

Risbud, S.

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, in Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CThPDD.

Silverstri, S. D.

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

Sun, K.

Taccheo, S.

Watanabe, M.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 196 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 191, 333 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, in Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), Vol. 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CThPDD.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Picture of part of sample 1 taken between cross polarizers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the interferometer used to measure the phase shift of the directly written sample with respect to the untouched bulk: M0–M2, mirrors; P1, polarizer; other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase images of the directly written sample for two polarizations, (a) xx and (b) yy, of the light traveling into the interferometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the self-organized nanograting induced in the glass. Ew and kw, electric field and wave vector, respectively, of the laser used to micromachine the glass.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical results when the model of form birefringence was applied to the directly written structures.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Phase changes of the Micromachined Zones

Equations (2)

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Ix,y=I0x,y1+V cosϕx,y+ϕ0t,
Δϕxx=2πλtbn12n22fn22+1-fn121/2-n0+Δϕ¯, Δϕxy=2πλtbfn12+1-fn221/2-n0+Δϕ¯,

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