Abstract

A digitally controlled programmable optical beam shaper that uses a two-dimensional (2-D) small-tilt micromirror device is introduced. The optical intensity profile at any spatial position can be independently modified by use of a macropixel incorporated with binary pulse-width modulation. An experimental proof-of-concept optical beam shaper with a commercial 2-D digital micromirror device has shown that the spatial profile of a He–Ne laser beam can be digitally manipulated. Investigation of the analog intensity control showed 256-level nonlinear degamma behavior with a measured 24.5-dB optical contrast ratio and a 10-bit spatial resolution. The performance of this tunable optical beam shaper is limited by the dimensions of the micromirror, the intermirror distance, the size of the optical beam, the number of bits used to control the micromirror, the diffraction effect, and the quality of the imaging optical system.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. S. Ih, Appl. Opt. 11, 694 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. W. Rhodes and D. L. Shealy, Appl. Opt. 19, 3545 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Russo, G. Righini, S. Sottini, and S. Trigari, Proc. SPIE 52, 166 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Dresel, M. Geyerlein, and J. Schwider, Appl. Opt. 35, 4615 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Ohtsuka and A. Tanone, Opt. Commun. 39, 70 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, Opt. Eng. 37, 1876 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Bokor and N. Davidson, Appl. Opt. 40, 2132 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. J. Villarreal, H. J. Baker, R. H. Abram, D. R. Jones, and D. R. Hall, J. Quantum Electron. 35, 267 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. C. Bonetti and J. Gobrecht, Appl. Opt. 39, 5806 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G.-Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Kato, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 505–506.
  11. S. Sumriddetchkajorn, “Fiber-optic beam control systems using microelectromechanical systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., 2000; University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich.).
  12. R. L. Knipe, Proc. SPIE 2783, 135 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, Proc. IEEE 86, 1687 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Kreis, P. Aswendt, and R. Höfling, Opt. Eng. 40, 926 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T. Kreis, P. Aswendt, and R. Höfling, Opt. Eng. 40, 926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Bokor and N. Davidson, Appl. Opt. 40, 2132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

F. J. Villarreal, H. J. Baker, R. H. Abram, D. R. Jones, and D. R. Hall, J. Quantum Electron. 35, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, Opt. Eng. 37, 1876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, Proc. IEEE 86, 1687 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

V. Russo, G. Righini, S. Sottini, and S. Trigari, Proc. SPIE 52, 166 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Y. Ohtsuka and A. Tanone, Opt. Commun. 39, 70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Abram, R. H.

F. J. Villarreal, H. J. Baker, R. H. Abram, D. R. Jones, and D. R. Hall, J. Quantum Electron. 35, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aswendt, P.

T. Kreis, P. Aswendt, and R. Höfling, Opt. Eng. 40, 926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baker, H. J.

F. J. Villarreal, H. J. Baker, R. H. Abram, D. R. Jones, and D. R. Hall, J. Quantum Electron. 35, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, N.

Bonetti, Y. C.

Davidson, N.

Douglass, M. R.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, Proc. IEEE 86, 1687 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dresel, T.

Geyerlein, M.

Gobrecht, J.

Hall, D. R.

F. J. Villarreal, H. J. Baker, R. H. Abram, D. R. Jones, and D. R. Hall, J. Quantum Electron. 35, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Höfling, R.

T. Kreis, P. Aswendt, and R. Höfling, Opt. Eng. 40, 926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hornbeck, L. J.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, Proc. IEEE 86, 1687 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ih, C. S.

Jitsuno, T.

G.-Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Kato, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 505–506.

Jones, D. R.

F. J. Villarreal, H. J. Baker, R. H. Abram, D. R. Jones, and D. R. Hall, J. Quantum Electron. 35, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

G.-Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Kato, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 505–506.

Knipe, R. L.

R. L. Knipe, Proc. SPIE 2783, 135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kreis, T.

T. Kreis, P. Aswendt, and R. Höfling, Opt. Eng. 40, 926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meier, R. E.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, Proc. IEEE 86, 1687 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

G.-Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Kato, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 505–506.

Ohtsuka, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka and A. Tanone, Opt. Commun. 39, 70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, P. W.

Righini, G.

V. Russo, G. Righini, S. Sottini, and S. Trigari, Proc. SPIE 52, 166 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, Opt. Eng. 37, 1876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Russo, V.

V. Russo, G. Righini, S. Sottini, and S. Trigari, Proc. SPIE 52, 166 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Schwider, J.

Shealy, D. L.

Sottini, S.

V. Russo, G. Righini, S. Sottini, and S. Trigari, Proc. SPIE 52, 166 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sumriddetchkajorn, S.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, “Fiber-optic beam control systems using microelectromechanical systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., 2000; University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich.).

Tanone, A.

Y. Ohtsuka and A. Tanone, Opt. Commun. 39, 70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Trigari, S.

V. Russo, G. Righini, S. Sottini, and S. Trigari, Proc. SPIE 52, 166 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Van Kessel, P. F.

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, Proc. IEEE 86, 1687 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Villarreal, F. J.

F. J. Villarreal, H. J. Baker, R. H. Abram, D. R. Jones, and D. R. Hall, J. Quantum Electron. 35, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, G.-Y.

G.-Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Kato, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 505–506.

Yuan, S.

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, Opt. Eng. 37, 1876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. J. Villarreal, H. J. Baker, R. H. Abram, D. R. Jones, and D. R. Hall, J. Quantum Electron. 35, 267 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Ohtsuka and A. Tanone, Opt. Commun. 39, 70 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

N. A. Riza and S. Yuan, Opt. Eng. 37, 1876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Kreis, P. Aswendt, and R. Höfling, Opt. Eng. 40, 926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. Van Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, Proc. IEEE 86, 1687 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

V. Russo, G. Righini, S. Sottini, and S. Trigari, Proc. SPIE 52, 166 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Knipe, Proc. SPIE 2783, 135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G.-Y. Yoon, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Kato, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 505–506.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, “Fiber-optic beam control systems using microelectromechanical systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Central Florida, Orlando, Fla., 2000; University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich.).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic structure of the 2-D small-tilt binary micromirror device–based programmable optical beam shaper.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the beam shaper: S1’s, spherical lenses (F1=20 cm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between the measured normalized optical output power and the 8-bit gray scale values.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of the cross-sectional optical beam and the corresponding CCD video line traces for (a) the original optical beam and (b) the doughnut-shaped optical beam profiles.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Pnorm=G/1147.5G20.706G/255+0.0991.0991/0.45G>20.706,

Metrics