Abstract

We describe the fabrication and evaluation of a low-loss, high-Δ optical waveguide consisting of heterostructured photonic crystals. The waveguide is composed of a multilayer stack of Ta2O5/SiO2 and is prepared by use of the autocloning technique. Light is guided in the waveguide by the difference in the effective refractive indices of the constituent photonic crystals. By improving the design of the core region so that is has a flat multilayer structure, we achieve Δ=3.0% for the in-plane direction and net propagation loss of 0.56 dB/mm at λ=1.6 µm. Experiments also suggest that the bending loss of the waveguide can be reduced to less than 0.1 dB if the curvature radius is larger than 700 µm.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Sato, Y. Ohtera, N. Ishino, K. Miura, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 904 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Kawakami, T. Sato, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, T. Kawashima, and H. Ohkubo, Proc. SPIE 4870, 279 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Baba, A. Motegi, T. Iwai, N. Fukaya, Y. Watanabe, and A. Sakai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Arentoft, T. Søndergaard, M. Kristnesen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge, and L. Frandsen, Electron. Lett. 38, 274 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Kobayashi and H. Terui, Appl. Opt. 22, 3121 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Shiraishi, T. Yanagi, and S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1584 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Nishida, K. Fujiura, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1596 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (5)

T. Sato, Y. Ohtera, N. Ishino, K. Miura, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawakami, T. Sato, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, T. Kawashima, and H. Ohkubo, Proc. SPIE 4870, 279 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, A. Motegi, T. Iwai, N. Fukaya, Y. Watanabe, and A. Sakai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Arentoft, T. Søndergaard, M. Kristnesen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge, and L. Frandsen, Electron. Lett. 38, 274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Nishida, K. Fujiura, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Shiraishi, T. Yanagi, and S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1977 (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Arentoft, J.

J. Arentoft, T. Søndergaard, M. Kristnesen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge, and L. Frandsen, Electron. Lett. 38, 274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, A. Motegi, T. Iwai, N. Fukaya, Y. Watanabe, and A. Sakai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

J. Arentoft, T. Søndergaard, M. Kristnesen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge, and L. Frandsen, Electron. Lett. 38, 274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L.

J. Arentoft, T. Søndergaard, M. Kristnesen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge, and L. Frandsen, Electron. Lett. 38, 274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujiura, K.

Y. Nishida, K. Fujiura, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fukaya, N.

T. Baba, A. Motegi, T. Iwai, N. Fukaya, Y. Watanabe, and A. Sakai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, K.

Y. Nishida, K. Fujiura, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ishino, N.

T. Sato, Y. Ohtera, N. Ishino, K. Miura, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, T.

T. Baba, A. Motegi, T. Iwai, N. Fukaya, Y. Watanabe, and A. Sakai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

T. Sato, Y. Ohtera, N. Ishino, K. Miura, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawakami, T. Sato, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, T. Kawashima, and H. Ohkubo, Proc. SPIE 4870, 279 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, T. Yanagi, and S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

S. Kawakami, T. Sato, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, T. Kawashima, and H. Ohkubo, Proc. SPIE 4870, 279 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

Kristnesen, M.

J. Arentoft, T. Søndergaard, M. Kristnesen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge, and L. Frandsen, Electron. Lett. 38, 274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

S. Kawakami, T. Sato, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, T. Kawashima, and H. Ohkubo, Proc. SPIE 4870, 279 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Sato, Y. Ohtera, N. Ishino, K. Miura, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Motegi, A.

T. Baba, A. Motegi, T. Iwai, N. Fukaya, Y. Watanabe, and A. Sakai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

Y. Nishida, K. Fujiura, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

Y. Nishida, K. Fujiura, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oda, K.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

Y. Nishida, K. Fujiura, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohkubo, H.

S. Kawakami, T. Sato, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, T. Kawashima, and H. Ohkubo, Proc. SPIE 4870, 279 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohtera, Y.

T. Sato, Y. Ohtera, N. Ishino, K. Miura, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawakami, T. Sato, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, T. Kawashima, and H. Ohkubo, Proc. SPIE 4870, 279 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, A.

T. Baba, A. Motegi, T. Iwai, N. Fukaya, Y. Watanabe, and A. Sakai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

S. Kawakami, T. Sato, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, T. Kawashima, and H. Ohkubo, Proc. SPIE 4870, 279 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Sato, Y. Ohtera, N. Ishino, K. Miura, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

Y. Nishida, K. Fujiura, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

K. Shiraishi, T. Yanagi, and S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Søndergaard, T.

J. Arentoft, T. Søndergaard, M. Kristnesen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge, and L. Frandsen, Electron. Lett. 38, 274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Terui, H.

Thorhauge, M.

J. Arentoft, T. Søndergaard, M. Kristnesen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge, and L. Frandsen, Electron. Lett. 38, 274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

T. Baba, A. Motegi, T. Iwai, N. Fukaya, Y. Watanabe, and A. Sakai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

Y. Nishida, K. Fujiura, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yanagi, T.

K. Shiraishi, T. Yanagi, and S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yanagisawa, M.

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Arentoft, T. Søndergaard, M. Kristnesen, A. Boltasseva, M. Thorhauge, and L. Frandsen, Electron. Lett. 38, 274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

T. Sato, Y. Ohtera, N. Ishino, K. Miura, and S. Kawakami, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 904 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, A. Motegi, T. Iwai, N. Fukaya, Y. Watanabe, and A. Sakai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Nishida, K. Fujiura, K. Hoshino, M. Shimizu, M. Yamada, K. Nakagawa, and Y. Ohishi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Suzuki, M. Yanagisawa, Y. Hibino, and K. Oda, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, T. Yanagi, and S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1584 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Kawakami, T. Sato, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, T. Kawashima, and H. Ohkubo, Proc. SPIE 4870, 279 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration and (b) designed structural parameters of a heterostructured PC waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective refractive-index distribution of the waveguide for the TE (y-polarized) wave.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional SEM image of a fabricated waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic illustration and (b), (c) SEM images of the waveguide surface of the measured sample. (b) Straight part and (c) bend part.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field pattern of the PC waveguide at the wavelength of 1.55 µm. The modal field diameter (MFD) is 4.5 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured transmission spectra of waveguides A and B. A, straight waveguide; B, waveguide including two 90° bends.

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