Abstract

Second-harmonic generation of uniformly oriented, ellipsoidal silver nanoparticles in a glass matrix was observed and investigated as a function of incidence angle, light polarization, and spatial arrangement of the particles. The results can be explained by the symmetry of the spatial nanoparticle arrangement and by resonance enhancement that is due to the localized surface plasmons of the particles. Second-harmonic enhancement is observed only in sufficiently thin layers (Δkl<π); on a sample with two separate layers, strong modulation owing to quasi-phase matching is obtained.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Büchel, F. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2417 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. M. Shalaev, Nonlinear Optics of Random Media (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000).
  4. N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. A. O’Donnell, R. Torre, and C. S. West, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7985 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Götz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. A 60, 607 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. B 68, 419 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. C. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. N. Herman and L. M. Hayden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 416 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K.-J. Berg, A. Berger, and H. Hofmeister, Z. Phys. D 20, 309 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Borek, K.-J. Berg, and G. Berg, Glass Sci. Technol. 71, 352 (1998).
  15. H. Hofmeister, W.-G. Drost, and A. Berger, Nanostruct. Mater. 12, 207 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Woltersdorf, G. Seifert, H. Graener, A. Pignolet, and D. Hesse, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 362 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1988).

2002

G. Woltersdorf, G. Seifert, H. Graener, A. Pignolet, and D. Hesse, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Büchel, F. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. B 68, 419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofmeister, W.-G. Drost, and A. Berger, Nanostruct. Mater. 12, 207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Borek, K.-J. Berg, and G. Berg, Glass Sci. Technol. 71, 352 (1998).

1997

K. A. O’Donnell, R. Torre, and C. S. West, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Götz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. A 60, 607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Herman and L. M. Hayden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 416 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

K.-J. Berg, A. Berger, and H. Hofmeister, Z. Phys. D 20, 309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1968

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1964

R. C. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Atoda, N.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Büchel, F. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. B 68, 419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berg, G.

R. Borek, K.-J. Berg, and G. Berg, Glass Sci. Technol. 71, 352 (1998).

Berg, K.-J.

R. Borek, K.-J. Berg, and G. Berg, Glass Sci. Technol. 71, 352 (1998).

K.-J. Berg, A. Berger, and H. Hofmeister, Z. Phys. D 20, 309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berger, A.

H. Hofmeister, W.-G. Drost, and A. Berger, Nanostruct. Mater. 12, 207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Berg, A. Berger, and H. Hofmeister, Z. Phys. D 20, 309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J. G.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Borek, R.

R. Borek, K.-J. Berg, and G. Berg, Glass Sci. Technol. 71, 352 (1998).

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Büchel, D.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Büchel, F. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buck, M.

T. Götz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. A 60, 607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. K.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

de Castro, A. R. B.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dressler, C.

T. Götz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. A 60, 607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Drost, W.-G.

H. Hofmeister, W.-G. Drost, and A. Berger, Nanostruct. Mater. 12, 207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eisert, F.

T. Götz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. A 60, 607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, H.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Büchel, F. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, F.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Büchel, F. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Götz, T.

T. Götz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. A 60, 607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Graener, H.

G. Woltersdorf, G. Seifert, H. Graener, A. Pignolet, and D. Hesse, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

Heritage, J. P.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Herman, W. N.

Hesse, D.

G. Woltersdorf, G. Seifert, H. Graener, A. Pignolet, and D. Hesse, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hofmeister, H.

H. Hofmeister, W.-G. Drost, and A. Berger, Nanostruct. Mater. 12, 207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Berg, A. Berger, and H. Hofmeister, Z. Phys. D 20, 309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jha, S. S.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kikukawa, T.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Büchel, F. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. B 68, 419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Leite, J. R. R.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. B 68, 419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. F.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mihalcea, C.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Büchel, F. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

R. C. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, T.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Büchel, F. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O'Donnell, K. A.

K. A. O’Donnell, R. Torre, and C. S. West, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. H.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pignolet, A.

G. Woltersdorf, G. Seifert, H. Graener, A. Pignolet, and D. Hesse, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, G.

G. Woltersdorf, G. Seifert, H. Graener, A. Pignolet, and D. Hesse, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, Nonlinear Optics of Random Media (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000).

Shen, Y. R.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tominaga, J.

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Büchel, F. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Torre, R.

K. A. O’Donnell, R. Torre, and C. S. West, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Träger, F.

T. Götz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. A 60, 607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, M.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
[CrossRef]

West, C. S.

K. A. O’Donnell, R. Torre, and C. S. West, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wokaun, A.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Woltersdorf, G.

G. Woltersdorf, G. Seifert, H. Graener, A. Pignolet, and D. Hesse, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Appl. Phys. A

T. Götz, M. Buck, C. Dressler, F. Eisert, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. A 60, 607 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

B. Lamprecht, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. B 68, 419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. C. Miller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 17 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Tominaga, C. Mihalcea, D. Büchel, F. Fukuda, T. Nakano, N. Atoda, H. Fuji, and T. Kikukawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Glass Sci. Technol.

R. Borek, K.-J. Berg, and G. Berg, Glass Sci. Technol. 71, 352 (1998).

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Woltersdorf, G. Seifert, H. Graener, A. Pignolet, and D. Hesse, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 362 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nanostruct. Mater.

H. Hofmeister, W.-G. Drost, and A. Berger, Nanostruct. Mater. 12, 207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

K. A. O’Donnell, R. Torre, and C. S. West, Phys. Rev. B 55, 7985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, and C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, and D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. D

K.-J. Berg, A. Berger, and H. Hofmeister, Z. Phys. D 20, 309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1988).

V. M. Shalaev, Nonlinear Optics of Random Media (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000).

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Extinction spectra of Ag nanoparticles in silica glass before (dashed curve) and after (solid curves) mechanical stretching.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured SH intensity versus incidence angle for a double-layer and a single-layer sample. Solid curves, calculations (see text).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization dependence of SH intensity from ellipsoidal Ag nanoparticles. Solid and dashed curves, calculations (see text).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χijk22ω=χii1ωχjj1ωχkk12ωδijk,
P2ωθ,φTωθ,φ2T2ωθ,φPω2deffθ,φ2×0lθgzexp-iΔkzdz2,
P2ωθ,φ2Tω2T2ωPω2deff2l2θsin2Δklθ/2Δklθ/22×1+cosΔkLθ+lθ,
Px=2d15ExEz, Py=2d24EyEz, Pz=d31Ex2+d32Ey2+d33Ez2.

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