Abstract

Projected index computed tomography (PICT) is a new imaging technique that provides a computed reconstruction of the index of refraction of a sample. PICT makes use of data from standard optical coherence tomography images taken from several view angles to determine a mapping of the refractive indices of the sample. A rectilinear propagation model is assumed, so the data are understood to be related to the line integral of the refractive index in the beam paths. These data thus provide a set of angular projections of the sample. The spatial distribution of the index of the object may then be reconstructed by use of standard filtered backprojection techniques. The resultant PICT images are free of the spatial distortion that is inherent in standard optical cross-sectional images and correspond well to the manufactured dimensions of specific samples.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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2002 (4)

2001 (1)

S. E. Ilyin, M. C. Flynn, and C. R. Plata-Salamán, J. Neurosci. Meth. 108, 91 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. L. Marks, R. A. Stack, D. J. Brady, D. C. Munson, and R. B. Brady, Science 284, 2164 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. Caponnetto and M. Bertero, Inverse Probl. 13, 1191 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1976 (1)

R. A. Brooks and G. DiChiro, Phys. Med. Biol. 21, 689 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahlgren, U.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldock, R.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertero, M.

A. Caponnetto and M. Bertero, Inverse Probl. 13, 1191 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964).

Bourma, B. E.

Brady, D. J.

D. L. Marks, R. A. Stack, D. J. Brady, D. C. Munson, and R. B. Brady, Science 284, 2164 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brady, R. B.

D. L. Marks, R. A. Stack, D. J. Brady, D. C. Munson, and R. B. Brady, Science 284, 2164 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

Brooks, R. A.

R. A. Brooks and G. DiChiro, Phys. Med. Biol. 21, 689 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caponnetto, A.

A. Caponnetto and M. Bertero, Inverse Probl. 13, 1191 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, D.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaspro, A.

DiChiro, G.

R. A. Brooks and G. DiChiro, Phys. Med. Biol. 21, 689 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Federici, F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flynn, M. C.

S. E. Ilyin, M. C. Flynn, and C. R. Plata-Salamán, J. Neurosci. Meth. 108, 91 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bourma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 20, 2258 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecksher-Sørensen, J.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bourma, M. R. Hee, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 20, 2258 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, B.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilyin, S. E.

S. E. Ilyin, M. C. Flynn, and C. R. Plata-Salamán, J. Neurosci. Meth. 108, 91 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

D. L. Marks, A. L. Oldenburg, J. J. Reynolds, and S. A. Boppart, Opt. Lett. 27, 2010 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Marks, R. A. Stack, D. J. Brady, D. C. Munson, and R. B. Brady, Science 284, 2164 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munson, D. C.

D. L. Marks, R. A. Stack, D. J. Brady, D. C. Munson, and R. B. Brady, Science 284, 2164 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natterer, F.

F. Natterer and F. Wübbeling, Mathematical Methods in Image Reconstruction (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 2001).
[CrossRef]

Oldenburg, A. L.

Perry, P.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plata-Salamán, C. R.

S. E. Ilyin, M. C. Flynn, and C. R. Plata-Salamán, J. Neurosci. Meth. 108, 91 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, S.

Reynolds, J. J.

Robello, M.

Rollins, A. M.

Ross, A.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharpe, J.

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

Stack, R. A.

D. L. Marks, R. A. Stack, D. J. Brady, D. C. Munson, and R. B. Brady, Science 284, 2164 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Vest, C. M.

Westphal, V.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964).

Wübbeling, F.

F. Natterer and F. Wübbeling, Mathematical Methods in Image Reconstruction (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Inverse Probl. (1)

A. Caponnetto and M. Bertero, Inverse Probl. 13, 1191 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. Meth. (1)

S. E. Ilyin, M. C. Flynn, and C. R. Plata-Salamán, J. Neurosci. Meth. 108, 91 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

R. A. Brooks and G. DiChiro, Phys. Med. Biol. 21, 689 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Marks, R. A. Stack, D. J. Brady, D. C. Munson, and R. B. Brady, Science 284, 2164 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sharpe, U. Ahlgren, P. Perry, B. Hill, A. Ross, J. Hecksher-Sørensen, R. Baldock, and D. Davidson, Science 296, 541 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

F. Natterer and F. Wübbeling, Mathematical Methods in Image Reconstruction (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, Pa., 2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1964).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the PICT setup. The computer-controlled rotational stage allows for the acquisition of incremental angularly displaced projection images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PICT projection data. A, Single displaced-reflector OCT image of a filled capillary tube. Displacements in the reflector in the vertical direction represent the projected index along the beam paths. B, Corresponding projection data after the displaced-reflector image is processed. Processing includes reflector detection, surface subtraction, low reflection interpolation, and centering.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional PICT image of a capillary tube. The tube is filled with optical cement and placed in index-matching fluid for imaging. A PICT image represents the spatial map of the indices of the sample. Linear artifacts are the result of sharp discontinuities in projected data. Equally commonly in computed tomography, these artifacts can be removed with more-advanced computed tomography algorithms. The gray scale indicates the related index values.

Equations (2)

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fx,y=0πpfx cos ϕ+y sin ϕ,ϕdϕ,
pfr,ϕ=-ωPω,ϕexp2πjωrdω

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