Abstract

Optical sectioning in wide-field microscopy is achieved by illumination of the object with a continuously moving single-spatial-frequency pattern and detecting the image with a smart pixel detector array. This detector performs an on-chip electronic signal processing that extracts the optically sectioned image. The optically sectioned image is directly observed in real time without any additional postprocessing.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).
  2. N. S. White, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 211–254.
  3. M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1905 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Commun. 153, 1 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 37, 975 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGrawHill, Boston, 1996).
  7. P. A. Stokseth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1314 (1969).
  8. S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Lett. 26, 512 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Ducros, M. Laubscher, B. Karamata, S. Bourquin, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Commun. 202, 29 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Laubscher, M. Ducros, B. Karamata, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Express 9, 429 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Ducros, M. Laubscher, B. Karamata, S. Bourquin, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Commun. 202, 29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Laubscher, M. Ducros, B. Karamata, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Express 9, 429 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 37, 975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Lett. 26, 512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Commun. 153, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1969 (1)

Bourquin, S.

M. Ducros, M. Laubscher, B. Karamata, S. Bourquin, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Commun. 202, 29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 37, 975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Lett. 26, 512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ducros, M.

M. Ducros, M. Laubscher, B. Karamata, S. Bourquin, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Commun. 202, 29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Laubscher, M. Ducros, B. Karamata, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Express 9, 429 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGrawHill, Boston, 1996).

Juškaitis, R.

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Commun. 153, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1905 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Karamata, B.

M. Ducros, M. Laubscher, B. Karamata, S. Bourquin, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Commun. 202, 29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Laubscher, M. Ducros, B. Karamata, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Express 9, 429 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

M. Laubscher, M. Ducros, B. Karamata, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Express 9, 429 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

M. Ducros, M. Laubscher, B. Karamata, S. Bourquin, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Commun. 202, 29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laubscher, M.

M. Ducros, M. Laubscher, B. Karamata, S. Bourquin, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Commun. 202, 29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Laubscher, M. Ducros, B. Karamata, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Express 9, 429 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Neil, M. A. A.

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Commun. 153, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1905 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R. P.

M. Ducros, M. Laubscher, B. Karamata, S. Bourquin, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Commun. 202, 29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Laubscher, M. Ducros, B. Karamata, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Express 9, 429 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 37, 975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Lett. 26, 512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seitz, P.

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Lett. 26, 512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 37, 975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Stokseth, P. A.

White, N. S.

N. S. White, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 211–254.

Wilson, T.

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Commun. 153, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Lett. 22, 1905 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Bourquin, P. Seitz, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 37, 975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. A. A. Neil, R. Juškaitis, and T. Wilson, Opt. Commun. 153, 1 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ducros, M. Laubscher, B. Karamata, S. Bourquin, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Commun. 202, 29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

M. Laubscher, M. Ducros, B. Karamata, T. Lasser, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Express 9, 429 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (3)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGrawHill, Boston, 1996).

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

N. S. White, in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1990), pp. 211–254.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OTF of a defocused system as function of the normalized spatial frequency v˜ for different values of the normalized defocus u obtained with the Stokseth analytic formula.7 Vertical dashed line, spatial frequency v˜e of our illumination pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic optical setup: Lcol, collector; L1, L2, tube lens; Obj, objective lens; FM, flip mirror; BS, beam splitter; AS, aperture stop. Dashed lines, illumination path; solid lines, imaging path.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured axial response (squares), corresponding fit (solid curve), and calculated curve for v˜c=0.078 (dashed curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bonding wire of an integrated circuit: (a), (b) conventional images taken with a CCD; (c), (d) corresponding optically sectioned images taken with the SPDA. The object is moved 13 µm axially through the focus between (a) and (b). The scale bars are 50 µm.

Equations (7)

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Ix¯,y¯;t=Σdx0dy0Gx0,y0;t×Ωdξdηh2x¯-ξ,y¯-ητξ,ηh1ξ-x0,η-y02,
Gx0,y0;t=1+Reexpiv˜x0-iωt,
Iv˜x¯,y¯;t=Iconvx¯,y¯+Iosecx¯,y¯;t,
Iconvx¯,y¯=Σdx0dy0Ωdξdηh2x¯-ξ,y¯-η×τξ,ηh1ξ-x0,η-y02,
Iosecx¯,y¯;t=Reexp-iωtΣdy0Fx0Ωdξdη×h2x¯-ξ,y¯-ητξ,ηh1ξ-x0,η-y02,
I˜osecv˜;t=Reexp-iωtdμP2μP1μ×P2*μ-v˜P1*μ-v˜,
I˜osecv˜;u,t=Reexp-iωtOTFv˜;2u,

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