Losses of cladding modes are part of the mechanism of operation of a long-period grating (LPG) when it is used as an optical filter. We present a LPG computer simulation that accounts for these losses. On the basis of this simulation, we show that losses result in qualitatively different LPG spectral behavior. There is an optimal loss value that provides sidelobe-free, 100% power transfer from the core to the cladding mode for a uniform LPG. We obtained a simple equation that relates this optimum loss value to the LPG length and the cross-coupling coefficient. Based on the results, we propose new approaches to LPG design in a fiber as well as in waveguide platforms for fiber-optic communication and sensor applications. A design of a LPG reconfigurable filter is suggested.
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