Abstract

The evolution of fundamental beams into quadratic spatial solitons was investigated in a periodically poled bulk KTiOPO4 crystal near and at phase matching. Various soliton properties, such as trapping efficiency as a function of phase mismatch, poling-induced walk-off, and the effects of pulse width, beam width, and input beam quality, were measured. Effects attributed to the presence of cubic nonlinearities were also observed.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. Yu. N. Karamzin and A. P. Sukhorukov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Phys. 68, 834 (1975) [Sov. Phys.-JETP 41, 414 (1976).
  2. W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Shiek, Y. Baek, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, W. Chianglia, and A. Adreoni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 265 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4631 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Bourliaguet, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, G. W. Ross, P. G. R. Smith, D. C. Hanna, and C. De Angelis, Opt. Lett. 24, 1410 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Malendevich, L. Jankovic, S. Polyakov, R. Fuerst, G. I. Stegeman, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 27, 631 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Polyakov, R. Malendevich, L. Jankovic, G. I. Stegeman, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 27, 1049 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Carrasco, L. Torner, H. Kim, S. Polyakov, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, and M. Katz, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD6-1.
  10. S. Polyakov and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 66, 046622 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Englander, R. Lavi, M. Katz, M. Oron, D. Eger, E. Lebiush, G. Rosenman, and A. Skliar, Opt. Lett. 22, 1598 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kim, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, M. Katz, S. Carrasco, and L. Torner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2710 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Lopez-Lago, C. Simos, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, D. Artigas, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 26, 1277 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. B. Clausen and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 24, 7 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Carrasco, H. Kim, G. I. Stegeman, P. Loza-Alvarez, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 27, 2016 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (5)

2001 (2)

E. Lopez-Lago, C. Simos, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, D. Artigas, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 26, 1277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, W. Chianglia, and A. Adreoni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

R. Shiek, Y. Baek, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Yu. N. Karamzin and A. P. Sukhorukov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Phys. 68, 834 (1975) [Sov. Phys.-JETP 41, 414 (1976).

Adreoni, A.

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, W. Chianglia, and A. Adreoni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Artigas, D.

Baek, Y.

R. Shiek, Y. Baek, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

Bosshard, Ch.

Bourliaguet, B.

Bramati, A.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, S.

S. Carrasco, H. Kim, G. I. Stegeman, P. Loza-Alvarez, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 27, 2016 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, M. Katz, S. Carrasco, and L. Torner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Carrasco, L. Torner, H. Kim, S. Polyakov, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, and M. Katz, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD6-1.

Chianglia, W.

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, W. Chianglia, and A. Adreoni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chinaglia, W.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clausen, C. B.

Conti, C.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Couderc, V.

De Angelis, C.

Di Trapani, P.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, W. Chianglia, and A. Adreoni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eger, D.

Englander, A.

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fuerst, R.

Gunter, P.

Hagan, D. J.

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, D. C.

Jankovic, L.

R. Malendevich, L. Jankovic, S. Polyakov, R. Fuerst, G. I. Stegeman, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 27, 631 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Polyakov, R. Malendevich, L. Jankovic, G. I. Stegeman, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 27, 1049 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, M. Katz, S. Carrasco, and L. Torner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Carrasco, L. Torner, H. Kim, S. Polyakov, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, and M. Katz, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD6-1.

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Karamzin, Yu. N.

Yu. N. Karamzin and A. P. Sukhorukov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Phys. 68, 834 (1975) [Sov. Phys.-JETP 41, 414 (1976).

Katz, M.

H. Kim, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, M. Katz, S. Carrasco, and L. Torner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Englander, R. Lavi, M. Katz, M. Oron, D. Eger, E. Lebiush, G. Rosenman, and A. Skliar, Opt. Lett. 22, 1598 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Carrasco, L. Torner, H. Kim, S. Polyakov, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, and M. Katz, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD6-1.

Kilius, J.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

S. Carrasco, H. Kim, G. I. Stegeman, P. Loza-Alvarez, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 27, 2016 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, M. Katz, S. Carrasco, and L. Torner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Carrasco, L. Torner, H. Kim, S. Polyakov, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, and M. Katz, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD6-1.

Lavi, R.

Lebiush, E.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4631 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Lago, E.

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Malendevich, R.

Menyuk, C. R.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minardi, S.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oron, M.

Polyakov, S.

R. Malendevich, L. Jankovic, S. Polyakov, R. Fuerst, G. I. Stegeman, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 27, 631 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Polyakov and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 66, 046622 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Polyakov, R. Malendevich, L. Jankovic, G. I. Stegeman, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 27, 1049 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Carrasco, L. Torner, H. Kim, S. Polyakov, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, and M. Katz, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD6-1.

Qian, L. J.

X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4631 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosenman, G.

Ross, G. W.

Shiek, R.

R. Shiek, Y. Baek, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simos, C.

Skliar, A.

Smith, P. G. R.

Stegeman, G.

H. Kim, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, M. Katz, S. Carrasco, and L. Torner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Carrasco, L. Torner, H. Kim, S. Polyakov, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, and M. Katz, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD6-1.

Stegeman, G. I.

R. Malendevich, L. Jankovic, S. Polyakov, R. Fuerst, G. I. Stegeman, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 27, 631 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Polyakov and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 66, 046622 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Polyakov, R. Malendevich, L. Jankovic, G. I. Stegeman, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, Opt. Lett. 27, 1049 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Carrasco, H. Kim, G. I. Stegeman, P. Loza-Alvarez, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 27, 2016 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Shiek, Y. Baek, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukhorukov, A. P.

Yu. N. Karamzin and A. P. Sukhorukov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Phys. 68, 834 (1975) [Sov. Phys.-JETP 41, 414 (1976).

Torner, L.

H. Kim, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, M. Katz, S. Carrasco, and L. Torner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Carrasco, H. Kim, G. I. Stegeman, P. Loza-Alvarez, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 27, 2016 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Lopez-Lago, C. Simos, V. Couderc, A. Barthelemy, D. Artigas, and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 26, 1277 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Clausen and L. Torner, Opt. Lett. 24, 7 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Carrasco, L. Torner, H. Kim, S. Polyakov, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, and M. Katz, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD6-1.

Torruellas, W. E.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trillo, S.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Valiulis, G.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, W. Chianglia, and A. Adreoni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4631 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Kim, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, M. Katz, S. Carrasco, and L. Torner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2710 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

R. Shiek, Y. Baek, and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 53, 1138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Polyakov and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. E 66, 046622 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, W. Chianglia, and A. Adreoni, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4631 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Torruellas, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, G. I. Stegeman, L. Torner, and C. R. Menyuk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5036 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Phys. (1)

Yu. N. Karamzin and A. P. Sukhorukov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Phys. 68, 834 (1975) [Sov. Phys.-JETP 41, 414 (1976).

Other (1)

S. Carrasco, L. Torner, H. Kim, S. Polyakov, L. Jankovic, G. Stegeman, and M. Katz, in Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, Vol. 80 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper PD6-1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

FW and SH output beam sizes (FWHM) as a function of input intensity. (a) FW, (b) SH.  Squares, T=49.0 C°ΔkL=-2.4π; circles, T=42.7 C°ΔkL=0; triangles, T=37.5 C°ΔkL=2.0π; dotted lines, input. Conditions: w0=18.4 µm, pulse width 50 ps, M2=1.0.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) FWHM of the output FW beam versus input intensity for several temperatures (or wave-vector mismatches): squares 54.3 C°ΔkL=-4.4π; circles, 49.3 C°ΔkL=-2.5π; triangles, 42.7 C°ΔkL=0; crosses, 35.5 C°ΔkL=2.7π; stars, 30.4 C°ΔkL=4.6π. (b) FWHM of the output beams (squares, FW; circles, SH; dotted line, input) versus temperature for a fixed peak intensity of 4.5 GW/cm2. Conditions: w0=16.4 µm, pulse width 50 ps, M2=1.11.2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experiments: trapping efficiency versus temperature for several ratios L of the aperture and a fixed input intensity of 4.5 GW/cm2. Conditions: w0=16.4 µm, pulse width 50 ps, M2=1.11.2. (b) Numerical cw simulations for an infinite crystal: soliton content versus temperature for several input powers for w0=16.4 µm with M2=1. Open circles, 5.5 kW 1.2 GW/cm2; filled circles, 11 kW 2.4 GW/cm2; squares, 27 kW 6.0 GW/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FWHM of the output FW beam versus input intensity for (a) two pulse widths: circles, 50 ps; squares, 25 ps; dotted line, input; w0=16.6 µm; M2=11.1 and (b) two beam quality factors: circles, M2=1.8, w0=19 µm, pulse width 25 ps; squares, M2=1, w0=18.4 µm, pulse width 50 ps. Inset, two beam waists: circles, w0=16.6 µm; squares, w0=18.4 µm. Conditions: pulse width 50 ps, M2=11.1. In all cases T=Tpm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output beam profiles: top, FW and bottom, SH, taken at room temperature 24 C° with off-axis propagation, with increasing input intensity on the phase-match peak (external angle, 8.4°). Conditions: w0=16.4 µm, M2=1.11.2, pulse width 50 ps.

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