Abstract

Several optical schemes have been proposed to measure the separate contributions of atmospheric layers for astronomical adaptive optics. I show here that simple conjugation of the wave-front sensors to the layers is sufficient. Although a larger camera is required for a larger field of view, only the pixels that sense stars are being read out. The nearly periodic Hartmann data are analyzed by Fourier filtering so that the signals from all stars are added up while most of the noise is excluded. Acoustic Hartmann wave-front sensors [Opt. Lett.26, 1834 (2001)] that switch between layers improve flexibility and sensitivity.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. N. Ribak, in Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, R. K. Tyson, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2000), and references therein.
  2. Y. Baharav, E. N. Ribak, and J. Shamir, Opt. Lett. 14, 242 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Baharav, E. N. Ribak, and J. Shamir, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1083 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Luhe, Proc. SPIE 4839, 66 (2002).
  5. R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, Proc. SPIE 4007, 1078 (2000).
  6. R. Ragazzoni, Proc. SPIE4840 (to be published).
  7. E. Ribak and R. Ragazzoni, Proc. European Southern Observatory 58, 281 (2001).
  8. E. N. Ribak, Opt. Lett. 26, 1834 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Carmon and E. N. Ribak, Opt. Commun. 215, 285 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. N. Ribak, C. Roddier, F. Roddier, and J. B. Breckinridge, Appl. Opt. 27, 1183 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Carmon and E. N. Ribak, Opt. Commun. 215, 285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Luhe, Proc. SPIE 4839, 66 (2002).

2001 (2)

E. Ribak and R. Ragazzoni, Proc. European Southern Observatory 58, 281 (2001).

E. N. Ribak, Opt. Lett. 26, 1834 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, Proc. SPIE 4007, 1078 (2000).

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1988 (1)

Baharav, Y.

Berkefeld, T.

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Luhe, Proc. SPIE 4839, 66 (2002).

Breckinridge, J. B.

Carmon, Y.

Y. Carmon and E. N. Ribak, Opt. Commun. 215, 285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Farinato, J.

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, Proc. SPIE 4007, 1078 (2000).

Marchetti, E.

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, Proc. SPIE 4007, 1078 (2000).

Ragazzoni, R.

E. Ribak and R. Ragazzoni, Proc. European Southern Observatory 58, 281 (2001).

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, Proc. SPIE 4007, 1078 (2000).

R. Ragazzoni, Proc. SPIE4840 (to be published).

Ribak, E.

E. Ribak and R. Ragazzoni, Proc. European Southern Observatory 58, 281 (2001).

Ribak, E. N.

Roddier, C.

Roddier, F.

Shamir, J.

Soltau, D.

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Luhe, Proc. SPIE 4839, 66 (2002).

von der Luhe, O.

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Luhe, Proc. SPIE 4839, 66 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Carmon and E. N. Ribak, Opt. Commun. 215, 285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. European Southern Observatory (1)

E. Ribak and R. Ragazzoni, Proc. European Southern Observatory 58, 281 (2001).

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. Berkefeld, D. Soltau, and O. von der Luhe, Proc. SPIE 4839, 66 (2002).

R. Ragazzoni, J. Farinato, and E. Marchetti, Proc. SPIE 4007, 1078 (2000).

Other (2)

R. Ragazzoni, Proc. SPIE4840 (to be published).

E. N. Ribak, in Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, R. K. Tyson, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2000), and references therein.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a), Different sensors, conjugate to the telescope pupil, allow reconstruction of the atmospheric layers. (b), Pyramids, at the images of the beacons, and detectors, conjugate to the atmospheric layers, directly measure slopes in these layers. (c), Lenslet arrays, conjugate to the atmospheric layers, directly measure slopes in these layers. The lenslets’ pitch is matched to the layer turbulence. (d), Two alternating acoustic beams, each conjugate to a different layer, save a beam splitter but halve the detector integration time per layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), (b) Hartmann (acoustic) lenslet array images of one object and two objects. (c), (d) Fourier transforms of a and b on a logarithmic scale. The two sidelobes (in circles, at distance D/d from the origin) contain all the slope data.

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