Abstract

Erbium-doped solgel films are applied to the surface of silica microspheres to create low-threshold microcavity lasers. This gain functionalization can be applied by use of a number of different dopants, thereby extending the wavelength range of this class of device. Also, by varying the doping concentration and thickness of the applied solgel layer, one can vary the laser dynamics so that both continuous-wave and pulsating modes of operation are possible.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroch, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, and R. M. Almeida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 895 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Bruynooghe, A. Chabli, F. Bertin, F. Pierre, and G. Leflem, J. Mater. Res. 12, 2779 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Ting, and C.-H. Li, J. Mater. Chem. 12, 1118 (2002).
  7. A. Arena, S. Patane, G. Saitta, G. Rizzo, S. Galvagno, and G. Neri, J. Mater. Res. 17, 2095 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. T. Dong and C. S. Zhu, Mater. Lett. 45, 336 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. B. P. Reid, http://www.bpreid.com/applets/poasDemo.html .
  14. Within the observable resolution limit of the optical spectrum analyzer.
  15. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

S.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Ting, and C.-H. Li, J. Mater. Chem. 12, 1118 (2002).

A. Arena, S. Patane, G. Saitta, G. Rizzo, S. Galvagno, and G. Neri, J. Mater. Res. 17, 2095 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, and K. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. H. Slooff, M. J. A. de Dood, A. van Blaaderen, and A. Polman, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 296, 158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Bruynooghe, A. Chabli, F. Bertin, F. Pierre, and G. Leflem, J. Mater. Res. 12, 2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, Opt. Lett. 22, 1129 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroch, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, and R. M. Almeida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, R. M.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, and R. M. Almeida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arena, A.

A. Arena, S. Patane, G. Saitta, G. Rizzo, S. Galvagno, and G. Neri, J. Mater. Res. 17, 2095 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, D.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, and R. M. Almeida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bertin, F.

S. Bruynooghe, A. Chabli, F. Bertin, F. Pierre, and G. Leflem, J. Mater. Res. 12, 2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bruynooghe, S.

S. Bruynooghe, A. Chabli, F. Bertin, F. Pierre, and G. Leflem, J. Mater. Res. 12, 2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

Campillo, A. J.

R. K. Chang and A. J. Campillo, Optical Processes in Microcavities (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

Chabli, A.

S. Bruynooghe, A. Chabli, F. Bertin, F. Pierre, and G. Leflem, J. Mater. Res. 12, 2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

R. K. Chang and A. J. Campillo, Optical Processes in Microcavities (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

Chen, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Ting, and C.-H. Li, J. Mater. Chem. 12, 1118 (2002).

Cheung, G.

de Dood, M. J. A.

L. H. Slooff, M. J. A. de Dood, A. van Blaaderen, and A. Polman, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 296, 158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dong, W. T.

W. T. Dong and C. S. Zhu, Mater. Lett. 45, 336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Du, X. M.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, and R. M. Almeida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Galvagno, S.

A. Arena, S. Patane, G. Saitta, G. Rizzo, S. Galvagno, and G. Neri, J. Mater. Res. 17, 2095 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroch, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haroch, S.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroch, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, F.

Jahier, E.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T.

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, and K. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroch, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leflem, G.

S. Bruynooghe, A. Chabli, F. Bertin, F. Pierre, and G. Leflem, J. Mater. Res. 12, 2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-H.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Ting, and C.-H. Li, J. Mater. Chem. 12, 1118 (2002).

Lissillour, F.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Long, R.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neri, G.

A. Arena, S. Patane, G. Saitta, G. Rizzo, S. Galvagno, and G. Neri, J. Mater. Res. 17, 2095 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Orignac, X.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, and R. M. Almeida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Patane, S.

A. Arena, S. Patane, G. Saitta, G. Rizzo, S. Galvagno, and G. Neri, J. Mater. Res. 17, 2095 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pierre, F.

S. Bruynooghe, A. Chabli, F. Bertin, F. Pierre, and G. Leflem, J. Mater. Res. 12, 2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

L. H. Slooff, M. J. A. de Dood, A. van Blaaderen, and A. Polman, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 296, 158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. M.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroch, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, G.

A. Arena, S. Patane, G. Saitta, G. Rizzo, S. Galvagno, and G. Neri, J. Mater. Res. 17, 2095 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saitta, G.

A. Arena, S. Patane, G. Saitta, G. Rizzo, S. Galvagno, and G. Neri, J. Mater. Res. 17, 2095 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroch, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sercel, P. C.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

Slooff, L. H.

L. H. Slooff, M. J. A. de Dood, A. van Blaaderen, and A. Polman, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 296, 158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S.

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, and K. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ting, C.-C.

S.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Ting, and C.-H. Li, J. Mater. Chem. 12, 1118 (2002).

Treussart, F.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroch, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, and K. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

van Blaaderen, A.

L. H. Slooff, M. J. A. de Dood, A. van Blaaderen, and A. Polman, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 296, 158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

von Klitzing, W.

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C. S.

W. T. Dong and C. S. Zhu, Mater. Lett. 45, 336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, and R. M. Almeida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. von Klitzing, E. Jahier, R. Long, F. Lissillour, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Electron. Lett. 35, 1745 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Ting, and C.-H. Li, J. Mater. Chem. 12, 1118 (2002).

J. Mater. Res. (2)

A. Arena, S. Patane, G. Saitta, G. Rizzo, S. Galvagno, and G. Neri, J. Mater. Res. 17, 2095 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Bruynooghe, A. Chabli, F. Bertin, F. Pierre, and G. Leflem, J. Mater. Res. 12, 2779 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

L. H. Slooff, M. J. A. de Dood, A. van Blaaderen, and A. Polman, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 296, 158 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

W. T. Dong and C. S. Zhu, Mater. Lett. 45, 336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Spillane, T. Kippenberg, and K. Vahala, Nature 415, 621 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroch, Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. K. Chang and A. J. Campillo, Optical Processes in Microcavities (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

B. P. Reid, http://www.bpreid.com/applets/poasDemo.html .

Within the observable resolution limit of the optical spectrum analyzer.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a thin-film-coated microsphere laser coupled with a fiber taper. The red and green arrows represent input pump and output lasing waves, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of the WGMs in the taper–sphere coupling zone: (a) l-m=1, (b) l-m=4. The green rings are upconverted photoluminescence. The inset shows spherical harmonics13 Ylmθ,φ for (a) l-m=1 and (b) l-m=4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser output power versus absorbed pump power in the microsphere laser. The inset shows the emission spectrum of the microsphere laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured pulse frequency versus the square root of the laser output power, P.

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