Abstract

A fast digital–analog control polarization-based optical scanner with complete three-dimensional beam-forming programmability is described. Its features include low power consumption and large-aperture liquid-crystal-based optics, digital repeatability, and time-multiplexed accurate analog beam forming. Analog frequency and amplitude control of the nematic liquid-crystal beam-former cells permits continuous fine-scan programmability over a 0.66-mrad horizontal deflection, a 0.75 mrad vertical deflection, and an infinity-to-1.84-m focal-length longitudinal scan. First demonstrations included an 8-point volumetric scan and a 2-bit digital lens scan, both at 1310 nm, with a 35µs random-access time.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. F. Fray and D. Jones, “Liquid crystal light deflector,” U.S. patent4,066,334 (January3, 1978).
  2. B. Lofving and S. Hard, Opt. Lett. 23, 1541 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 27 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Meyer, Appl. Opt. 11, 613 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. W. Song, X. M. Wang, R. Bussjager, and J. Osman, Appl. Opt. 35, 3155 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. P. Huignard, M. Malard, and G. de Corlieu, “Static deflector device for an infrared beam,” U.S. patent3,843,231 (January27, 1987).
  7. P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. A. Riza, Proc. SPIE 3482, 572 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. A. Riza, “Digital control polarization based optical scanner,” U.S. patent6,031,658 (February29, 2000).
  10. W. Klaus, Intl. J. Electron. Commun. 56, 243 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Meyer, D. Riekmann, K. P. Schmidt, U. J. Schmidt, M. Rahlff, E. Schroder, and W. Thust, Appl. Opt. 11, 8 (1972).
  12. R. McRuer, L. R. McAdams, and J. W. Goodman, Opt. Lett. 15, 23 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. M. Titus, P. J. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Proc. SPIE 3633, 244 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. B. Hawthorn, A. Harwit, and M. Harwit, Science 297, 523 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Proc. SPIE 1455, 145 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. Matic, Proc. SPIE 2120, 194 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. A. Riza and M. C. DeJule, Opt. Lett. 19, 1013 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Love, J. V. Major, and A. Purvis, Opt. Lett. 19, 1170 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. Vdovin, A. Naumov, M. Loktev, V. Belopukhov, F. Vladimirov, and G. Love, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 9 (2000).

2002 (2)

W. Klaus, Intl. J. Electron. Commun. 56, 243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Hawthorn, A. Harwit, and M. Harwit, Science 297, 523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Vdovin, A. Naumov, M. Loktev, V. Belopukhov, F. Vladimirov, and G. Love, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 9 (2000).

1999 (1)

C. M. Titus, P. J. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Proc. SPIE 3633, 244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

N. A. Riza, Proc. SPIE 3482, 572 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Lofving and S. Hard, Opt. Lett. 23, 1541 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (3)

1993 (1)

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Proc. SPIE 1455, 145 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. McRuer, L. R. McAdams, and J. W. Goodman, Opt. Lett. 15, 23 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

H. Meyer, D. Riekmann, K. P. Schmidt, U. J. Schmidt, M. Rahlff, E. Schroder, and W. Thust, Appl. Opt. 11, 8 (1972).

R. A. Meyer, Appl. Opt. 11, 613 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Belopukhov, V.

G. Vdovin, A. Naumov, M. Loktev, V. Belopukhov, F. Vladimirov, and G. Love, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 9 (2000).

Bos, P. J.

C. M. Titus, P. J. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Proc. SPIE 3633, 244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bussjager, R.

Clark, M. G.

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Proc. SPIE 1455, 145 (1991).
[CrossRef]

de Corlieu, G.

J. P. Huignard, M. Malard, and G. de Corlieu, “Static deflector device for an infrared beam,” U.S. patent3,843,231 (January27, 1987).

DeJule, M. C.

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fray, A. F.

A. F. Fray and D. Jones, “Liquid crystal light deflector,” U.S. patent4,066,334 (January3, 1978).

Goodman, J. W.

R. McRuer, L. R. McAdams, and J. W. Goodman, Opt. Lett. 15, 23 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hard, S.

Harwit, A.

J. B. Hawthorn, A. Harwit, and M. Harwit, Science 297, 523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harwit, M.

J. B. Hawthorn, A. Harwit, and M. Harwit, Science 297, 523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hawthorn, J. B.

J. B. Hawthorn, A. Harwit, and M. Harwit, Science 297, 523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

J. P. Huignard, M. Malard, and G. de Corlieu, “Static deflector device for an infrared beam,” U.S. patent3,843,231 (January27, 1987).

Jones, D.

A. F. Fray and D. Jones, “Liquid crystal light deflector,” U.S. patent4,066,334 (January3, 1978).

Kiang, M. H.

M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klaus, W.

W. Klaus, Intl. J. Electron. Commun. 56, 243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. Y.

M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

C. M. Titus, P. J. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Proc. SPIE 3633, 244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lofving, B.

Loktev, M.

G. Vdovin, A. Naumov, M. Loktev, V. Belopukhov, F. Vladimirov, and G. Love, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 9 (2000).

Love, G.

G. Vdovin, A. Naumov, M. Loktev, V. Belopukhov, F. Vladimirov, and G. Love, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 9 (2000).

G. Love, J. V. Major, and A. Purvis, Opt. Lett. 19, 1170 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Major, J. V.

Malard, M.

J. P. Huignard, M. Malard, and G. de Corlieu, “Static deflector device for an infrared beam,” U.S. patent3,843,231 (January27, 1987).

Matic, R. M.

R. M. Matic, Proc. SPIE 2120, 194 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McAdams, L. R.

R. McRuer, L. R. McAdams, and J. W. Goodman, Opt. Lett. 15, 23 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McManamon, P. F.

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McRuer, R.

R. McRuer, L. R. McAdams, and J. W. Goodman, Opt. Lett. 15, 23 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, H.

H. Meyer, D. Riekmann, K. P. Schmidt, U. J. Schmidt, M. Rahlff, E. Schroder, and W. Thust, Appl. Opt. 11, 8 (1972).

Meyer, R. A.

Muller, R. S.

M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, A.

G. Vdovin, A. Naumov, M. Loktev, V. Belopukhov, F. Vladimirov, and G. Love, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 9 (2000).

Osman, J.

Powell, N. J.

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Proc. SPIE 1455, 145 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Purvis, A.

G. Love, J. V. Major, and A. Purvis, Opt. Lett. 19, 1170 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Proc. SPIE 1455, 145 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rahlff, M.

H. Meyer, D. Riekmann, K. P. Schmidt, U. J. Schmidt, M. Rahlff, E. Schroder, and W. Thust, Appl. Opt. 11, 8 (1972).

Riekmann, D.

H. Meyer, D. Riekmann, K. P. Schmidt, U. J. Schmidt, M. Rahlff, E. Schroder, and W. Thust, Appl. Opt. 11, 8 (1972).

Riza, N. A.

N. A. Riza, Proc. SPIE 3482, 572 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza and M. C. DeJule, Opt. Lett. 19, 1013 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Riza, “Digital control polarization based optical scanner,” U.S. patent6,031,658 (February29, 2000).

Schmidt, K. P.

H. Meyer, D. Riekmann, K. P. Schmidt, U. J. Schmidt, M. Rahlff, E. Schroder, and W. Thust, Appl. Opt. 11, 8 (1972).

Schmidt, U. J.

H. Meyer, D. Riekmann, K. P. Schmidt, U. J. Schmidt, M. Rahlff, E. Schroder, and W. Thust, Appl. Opt. 11, 8 (1972).

Schroder, E.

H. Meyer, D. Riekmann, K. P. Schmidt, U. J. Schmidt, M. Rahlff, E. Schroder, and W. Thust, Appl. Opt. 11, 8 (1972).

Solgaard, O.

M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q. W.

Thust, W.

H. Meyer, D. Riekmann, K. P. Schmidt, U. J. Schmidt, M. Rahlff, E. Schroder, and W. Thust, Appl. Opt. 11, 8 (1972).

Titus, C. M.

C. M. Titus, P. J. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Proc. SPIE 3633, 244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, G.

G. Vdovin, A. Naumov, M. Loktev, V. Belopukhov, F. Vladimirov, and G. Love, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 9 (2000).

Vladimirov, F.

G. Vdovin, A. Naumov, M. Loktev, V. Belopukhov, F. Vladimirov, and G. Love, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 9 (2000).

Wang, X. M.

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G.

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Proc. SPIE 1455, 145 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Proc. SPIE 1455, 145 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

H. Meyer, D. Riekmann, K. P. Schmidt, U. J. Schmidt, M. Rahlff, E. Schroder, and W. Thust, Appl. Opt. 11, 8 (1972).

R. A. Meyer, Appl. Opt. 11, 613 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. W. Song, X. M. Wang, R. Bussjager, and J. Osman, Appl. Opt. 35, 3155 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Intl. J. Electron. Commun. (1)

W. Klaus, Intl. J. Electron. Commun. 56, 243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

M. H. Kiang, O. Solgaard, K. Y. Lau, and R. S. Muller, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7, 27 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. F. McManamon, E. A. Watson, T. A. Dorschner, and L. J. Barnes, Opt. Eng. 32, 2657 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (4)

A. Purvis, G. Williams, N. J. Powell, M. G. Clark, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, Proc. SPIE 1455, 145 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Matic, Proc. SPIE 2120, 194 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Titus, P. J. Bos, and O. D. Lavrentovich, Proc. SPIE 3633, 244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, Proc. SPIE 3482, 572 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Vdovin, A. Naumov, M. Loktev, V. Belopukhov, F. Vladimirov, and G. Love, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 9 (2000).

Science (1)

J. B. Hawthorn, A. Harwit, and M. Harwit, Science 297, 523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

N. A. Riza, “Digital control polarization based optical scanner,” U.S. patent6,031,658 (February29, 2000).

J. P. Huignard, M. Malard, and G. de Corlieu, “Static deflector device for an infrared beam,” U.S. patent3,843,231 (January27, 1987).

A. F. Fray and D. Jones, “Liquid crystal light deflector,” U.S. patent4,066,334 (January3, 1978).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

P-MOS architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Basic single-voxel scan hardware of the P-MOS module.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output scanned beams from the demonstrated 8-point voxel scanner: (a) incident, (b) x-deflected by 0.66 mrad, (c) y-deflected by 0.75 mrad, and (d) z-scan (1.84-m P-MOS focal length) beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Demonstration of the P-MOS as a 2-bit digital lens. Focal-length states of (a) infinity, (b) 3 m, (c) 2 m, and (d) 1.2 m of the P-MOS exit beam. The distance between the two lenses is 6.7 cm.

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