Abstract

We report on the fabrication and electro-optic measurements of face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices in holographic polymer dispersed liquid-crystal materials. Four linearly polarized coherent plane waves were interfered to generate a fcc optical lattice that was subsequently and indefinitely recorded as an arrayed pattern of nanometer-sized liquid-crystal droplets 50 nm at lattice nodes within a polymer matrix. Observed transmission spectra and Kossel diffraction curves are consistent with fcc crystal structure. A completely reversible 2% wavelength shift of the ±1 1 1 stop band was observed on application of an electric field.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Busch and S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Mertens, T. Röder, R. Schweins, K. Huber, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1885 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Mach, P. Wiltzius, M. Megens, D. A. Weitz, K. Lin, T. C. Lubensky, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. E 65, 031720 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Foteinopoulou, A. Rosenberg, M. M. Sigalas, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 824 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 168 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, and Y. R. Wang, Opt. Lett. 27, 900 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. I. Petsas, A. B. Coates, and G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. A 50, 5173 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. J. Escuti and G. P. Crawford, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 709, 293 (2002).
  15. V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. I. Tarhan and G. H. Watson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 315 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

G. Mertens, T. Röder, R. Schweins, K. Huber, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1885 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Mach, P. Wiltzius, M. Megens, D. A. Weitz, K. Lin, T. C. Lubensky, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. E 65, 031720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, and Y. R. Wang, Opt. Lett. 27, 900 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti and G. P. Crawford, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 709, 293 (2002).

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Foteinopoulou, A. Rosenberg, M. M. Sigalas, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

K. Busch and S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

I. I. Tarhan and G. H. Watson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 315 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

K. I. Petsas, A. B. Coates, and G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. A 50, 5173 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Adams, W. W.

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baughman, R. H.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bowley, C. C.

C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

K. Busch and S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cai, L. Z.

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charlton, M. D. B.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coates, A. B.

K. I. Petsas, A. B. Coates, and G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. A 50, 5173 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costard, E.

V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

M. J. Escuti and G. P. Crawford, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 709, 293 (2002).

C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Denning, R. G.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doane, J. W.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M. J.

M. J. Escuti and G. P. Crawford, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 709, 293 (2002).

Faris, S.

C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foteinopoulou, S.

S. Foteinopoulou, A. Rosenberg, M. M. Sigalas, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier-Lafaye, O.

V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grynberg, G.

K. I. Petsas, A. B. Coates, and G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. A 50, 5173 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, M. T.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, K.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, R. Schweins, K. Huber, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1885 (2002).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

K. Busch and S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawagishi, Y.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kitzerow, H.-S.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, R. Schweins, K. Huber, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1885 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kossyrev, P. A.

C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K.

P. Mach, P. Wiltzius, M. Megens, D. A. Weitz, K. Lin, T. C. Lubensky, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. E 65, 031720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lubensky, T. C.

P. Mach, P. Wiltzius, M. Megens, D. A. Weitz, K. Lin, T. C. Lubensky, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. E 65, 031720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mach, P.

P. Mach, P. Wiltzius, M. Megens, D. A. Weitz, K. Lin, T. C. Lubensky, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. E 65, 031720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maclennan, J. E.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Megens, M.

P. Mach, P. Wiltzius, M. Megens, D. A. Weitz, K. Lin, T. C. Lubensky, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. E 65, 031720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mertens, G.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, R. Schweins, K. Huber, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1885 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, K.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Netti, M. C.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parker, G. J.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petsas, K. I.

K. I. Petsas, A. B. Coates, and G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. A 50, 5173 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Röder, T.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, R. Schweins, K. Huber, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1885 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, A.

S. Foteinopoulou, A. Rosenberg, M. M. Sigalas, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schweins, R.

G. Mertens, T. Röder, R. Schweins, K. Huber, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1885 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, D. N.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimoda, Y.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

S. Foteinopoulou, A. Rosenberg, M. M. Sigalas, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

S. Foteinopoulou, A. Rosenberg, M. M. Sigalas, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tarhan, I. I.

I. I. Tarhan and G. H. Watson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 315 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlin, D.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Turberfield, A. J.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaz, N. A.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. R.

Watson, G. H.

I. I. Tarhan and G. H. Watson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 315 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitz, D. A.

P. Mach, P. Wiltzius, M. Megens, D. A. Weitz, K. Lin, T. C. Lubensky, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. E 65, 031720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wiltzius, P.

P. Mach, P. Wiltzius, M. Megens, D. A. Weitz, K. Lin, T. C. Lubensky, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. E 65, 031720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. G.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. L.

Yodh, A. G.

P. Mach, P. Wiltzius, M. Megens, D. A. Weitz, K. Lin, T. C. Lubensky, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. E 65, 031720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A. A.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoorob, M. E.

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zumer, S.

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. C. Bowley, P. A. Kossyrev, G. P. Crawford, and S. Faris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Doane, N. A. Vaz, B. G. Wu, and S. Zumer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 269 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, and M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Mertens, T. Röder, R. Schweins, K. Huber, and H.-S. Kitzerow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1885 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Foteinopoulou, A. Rosenberg, M. M. Sigalas, and C. M. Soukoulis, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 824 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.

M. J. Escuti and G. P. Crawford, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 709, 293 (2002).

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

M. E. Zoorob, M. D. B. Charlton, G. J. Parker, J. J. Baumberg, and M. C. Netti, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 74, 168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

K. I. Petsas, A. B. Coates, and G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. A 50, 5173 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E

P. Mach, P. Wiltzius, M. Megens, D. A. Weitz, K. Lin, T. C. Lubensky, and A. G. Yodh, Phys. Rev. E 65, 031720 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Tarhan and G. H. Watson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 315 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Busch and S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Holographic formation of the fcc optical lattice: (a) Ideal propagation vectors within the film θ63°, (b) opposing coupling prisms arranged to achieve the required oblique propagation. Calculated isointensity surfaces corresponding to the anticipated (c) polymer morphology and (d) LC droplets. Note that (c) and (d) are indeed complementary; for clarity, (d) is shown with a translational shift of λ51/21/400 with respect to (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron micrographs of the polymer morphology of the fcc lattice in H-PDLC materials: (a) Macroscopic fracture planes follow the mesoscopic crystal lattice directions. (b) The (1 0 0) plane. Notice the distinct LC droplet at each lattice node. (c) Two magnified views of (a), showing the (0 0 1) plane parallel to the substrate. (d) Two views of the (1 1 1) face. For both (c) and (d) the scale bars of the insets correspond to 200 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electro-optic characterization: (a) Transmission spectra, with two primary notches that arise from different lattice planes. (b) Wavelength tuning of the notch from the (1 1 1) lattice planes. (c) Kossel diffraction at 532 nm from the ±1±11 lattice planes calculated for our ideal lattice dimension; dimensions are in units of tanα, where α is the angular deviation from the normal direction. (d) Preliminary image of the experimental Kossel diffraction at each of the four diffraction-curve intersections. The shaded areas in (c) correspond approximately to the apertures in (d).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Propagation and Polarization Vectors

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IrRl=1Nm=1NEl·Em* expikl-km·r,

Metrics