Abstract

We present a novel method for forming linearly polarized axially symmetric beams with various polarization orders that is based on computer-generated space-variant subwavelength gratings. We introduce and experimentally demonstrate that our space-variant polarization state manipulations are accompanied by a phase modification of a helical structure that results from the Pancharatnam–Berry phase. We have verified the polarization properties of our gratings for laser radiation at 10.6µm wavelength.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Allen, M J. Padgett, and M. Babiker, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999), Vol. XXXIX, pp. 291–370.
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Stalder and M. Schadt, Opt. Lett. 21, 1948 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Davis, D. E. McNamara, D. M. Cottrell, and T. Sonehara, Appl. Opt. 39, 1549 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1587 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 26, 1424 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 27, 285 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. C. Deguzman and G. P. Nordin, Appl. Opt. 40, 5731 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, Opt. Commun. 209, 45 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Collet, Polarized Light (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).
  11. S. Pancharatnam, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 44, 247 (1956).
  12. Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 27, 1141 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002

2001

2000

J. A. Davis, D. E. McNamara, D. M. Cottrell, and T. Sonehara, Appl. Opt. 39, 1549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

1956

S. Pancharatnam, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 44, 247 (1956).

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M J. Padgett, and M. Babiker, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999), Vol. XXXIX, pp. 291–370.
[CrossRef]

Babiker, M.

L. Allen, M J. Padgett, and M. Babiker, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999), Vol. XXXIX, pp. 291–370.
[CrossRef]

Biener, G.

Blit, S.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bomzon, Z.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, Opt. Commun. 209, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 27, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 27, 1141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 26, 1424 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Collet, E.

E. Collet, Polarized Light (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).

Cottrell, D. M.

Davidson, N.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

Deguzman, P. C.

Friesem, A. A.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hasman, E.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, Opt. Commun. 209, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 27, 285 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 27, 1141 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Opt. Lett. 26, 1424 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, V.

McNamara, D. E.

Niv, A.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, Opt. Commun. 209, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G. P.

Oron, R.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M J.

L. Allen, M J. Padgett, and M. Babiker, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999), Vol. XXXIX, pp. 291–370.
[CrossRef]

Pancharatnam, S.

S. Pancharatnam, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 44, 247 (1956).

Schadt, M.

Sonehara, T.

Stalder, M.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Oron, S. Blit, N. Davidson, A. A. Friesem, Z. Bomzon, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1587 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, Opt. Commun. 209, 45 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A

S. Pancharatnam, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. A 44, 247 (1956).

Other

L. Allen, M J. Padgett, and M. Babiker, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1999), Vol. XXXIX, pp. 291–370.
[CrossRef]

E. Collet, Polarized Light (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Illustration of linearly polarized light with axial symmetry and different polarization orders; (b) the geometrical definition of the grating vector. Inset, scanning electron microscope image of a typical cross section of the grating profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Magnified geometry of the subwavelength gratings for polarization orders m=½,1,1½,2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental intensity distributions, directly after the gratings of different polarization orders, of the beams emerging from a linear polarizer as an analyzer; (b) measured local azimuthal angles of the beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated real parts of the instantaneous vector fields for beams (a) emerging from the gratings only and (c) with the additional spiral phase element ld=m. (b), (d) Experimental far-field images for the beams and their calculated (solid curves) and measured (filled circles) cross sections [(b) corresponds to (a), whereas (d) corresponds to (c)].

Equations (2)

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ϕgr,ω=2πr0r0/rm-1sinm-1ω+ψ0-3π/4/m-1Λ0,    m1, ϕgr,ω=2πr0/Λ0lnr/r0cosψ0-π/4+ω sinψ0-π/4,    m=1.
Eout=½1,-iT expildω+1,iT exp-i2m-ldω+2ψ0.

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