Abstract

Phase-matched difference-frequency mixing in a thin GaSe crystal within the broad spectrum of 25-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire oscillator multipass amplifier system permits the generation of few-cycle electric field transients, frequencies up to 30 THz, and amplitudes of more than 1 MV/cm. The field transients generated at a 1-kHz repetition rate are directly measured by electro-optic sampling by 12-fs probe pulses from the 75-MHz repetition-rate Ti:sapphire oscillator in combination with a novel electronic gating technique.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2001 (3)

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1747 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Likforman, M. Mehendale, D. M. Villeneuve, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 26, 99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

1999 (2)

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

K. Tada and M. Aoki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 10, 998 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, M.

K. Tada and M. Aoki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 10, 998 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bonvalet, A.

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

Eickemeyer, F.

F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Eickemeyer, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 25, 1472 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Eickemeyer, R. A. Kaindl, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 25, 1472 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, D. C. Smith, M. Joschko, M. P. Hasselbeck, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, Opt. Lett. 23, 861 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamm, P.

Han, P. Y.

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1747 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hasselbeck, M. P.

Hey, R.

F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, S.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

J.-P. Likforman, M. Mehendale, D. M. Villeneuve, M. Joffre, and P. B. Corkum, Opt. Lett. 26, 99 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Joschko, M.

Kaindl, R. A.

Knox, W. H.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Likforman, J.-P.

Martin, J. L.

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mehendale, M.

Migus, A.

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, K.

Shah, J.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. C.

Tada, K.

K. Tada and M. Aoki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 10, 998 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D. M.

Weiner, A. M.

Woerner, M.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wurm, M.

Zhang, X.-C.

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1747 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. Bonvalet, M. Joffre, J. L. Martin, and A. Migus, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2907 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, A. M. Weiner, T. Elsaesser, R. Hey, and K. H. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 165 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, F. Eickemeyer, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1060 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Tada and M. Aoki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 10, 998 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. Y. Han and X.-C. Zhang, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1747 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

T. Elsaesser, S. Mukamel, M. M. Murnane, and N. F. Scherer, eds., Ultrafast Phenomena XII (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Setup for the generation and direct field-resolved detection of high-field THz transients with frequencies up to 35 THz: WP, Wollaston polarizer. The transients are generated by phase-matched difference-frequency mixing in GaSe of intense 25-fs pulses from an amplified Ti:sapphire laser. The electric field is directly measured by electro-optic sampling in ZnTe with 20% of the oscillator beam used as 12-fs probe pulses. (b) Schematic showing the timing of various electric signals that occur in the novel gating technique: 75-MHz train of oscillator pulses (upper trace), amplified pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate (trace below the upper trace), electronic difference signal from the balanced photodiodes (next lowest trace), and electronic gates for signal (Gate 1) and reference (Gate 2) (bottom trace).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Electric field transient (solid curve) generated in 200-µm GaSe for an external phase-matching angle of 44°. The normalized difference signal from the two balanced photodiodes (left axis) is plotted versus the time delay between the 12-fs-long oscillator pulses and the THz transient (right axis, corresponding electric field strength). (b) Solid curve, transient obtained for 30-µm-thick GaSe. Dashed curve, the field changes its absolute sign after a 180° rotation of the GaSe crystal about its c axis. (c) The noise (rms of single-shot fluctuations) shows delay fluctuations between oscillator and amplifier pulses of less than 1 fs rms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra (obtained by Fourier transform of the measured transients) (a) for a 30-µm-thick and (b) for a 100-µm-thick GaSe crystal for several external phase-matching angles as indicated.

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