Abstract

We report the capture of cold strontium atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) at a rate of 4×1010 atoms/s. The MOT is loaded from an atomic beam decelerated by a Zeeman slower operating with a focused laser beam. The 461-nm laser, used for both cooling and trapping, was generated by sum-frequency mixing in a KTP crystal with diode lasers at 813 nm and a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. As much as 115 mW of blue light was obtained.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Zinner, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, and E. Tiemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2292 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Machholm, P. S. Julienne, and K.-A. Suominen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 023401 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Bidel, B. Klappauf, J. Bernard, D. Delande, G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, D. Wilkowski, and R. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203902 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Sterr, K. Sengstock, W. Ertmer, F. Riehle, and J. Helmcke, in Atom Interferometry, P. R. Berman, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), pp. 293–362.
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H. Telle, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, and A. Stentz, Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Katori, in Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, P. Gill, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002), pp. 323–330.
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and H. Katori, Phys. Rev. A 61, 061403 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. P. Dinneen, K. R. Vogel, E. Arimondo, J. L. Hall, and A. Gallagher, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 115 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. See, e.g., D. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995–1996).
  11. H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. A. Molenaar, P. van der Straten, and H. G. M. Heideman, Phys. Rev. A 55, 605 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Lison, P. Schuh, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Phys. Rev. A 61, 013405 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. One way for further optimization would be to allow a variable η along this axis.
  15. W. P. Risk and W. J. Kozlovsky, Opt. Lett. 17, 707 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J.-J. Zondy, Opt. Commun. 81, 427 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. D. Vance, C.-Y. She, and H. Moosmüller, Appl. Opt. 37, 4891 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Machholm, P. S. Julienne, and K.-A. Suominen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 023401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bidel, B. Klappauf, J. Bernard, D. Delande, G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, D. Wilkowski, and R. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H. Telle, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, and A. Stentz, Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and H. Katori, Phys. Rev. A 61, 061403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Zinner, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, and E. Tiemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2292 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Lison, P. Schuh, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Phys. Rev. A 61, 013405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

P. A. Molenaar, P. van der Straten, and H. G. M. Heideman, Phys. Rev. A 55, 605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. P. Dinneen, K. R. Vogel, E. Arimondo, J. L. Hall, and A. Gallagher, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 115 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

J.-J. Zondy, Opt. Commun. 81, 427 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

T. P. Dinneen, K. R. Vogel, E. Arimondo, J. L. Hall, and A. Gallagher, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 115 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J.

T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernard, J.

Y. Bidel, B. Klappauf, J. Bernard, D. Delande, G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, D. Wilkowski, and R. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bidel, Y.

Y. Bidel, B. Klappauf, J. Bernard, D. Delande, G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, D. Wilkowski, and R. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Binnewies, T.

J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H. Telle, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, and A. Stentz, Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zinner, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, and E. Tiemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2292 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, E.

T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delande, D.

Y. Bidel, B. Klappauf, J. Bernard, D. Delande, G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, D. Wilkowski, and R. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S.

T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinneen, T. P.

T. P. Dinneen, K. R. Vogel, E. Arimondo, J. L. Hall, and A. Gallagher, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 115 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R.

T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ertmer, W.

U. Sterr, K. Sengstock, W. Ertmer, F. Riehle, and J. Helmcke, in Atom Interferometry, P. R. Berman, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), pp. 293–362.
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, A.

T. P. Dinneen, K. R. Vogel, E. Arimondo, J. L. Hall, and A. Gallagher, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 115 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

T. P. Dinneen, K. R. Vogel, E. Arimondo, J. L. Hall, and A. Gallagher, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 115 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haubrich, D.

F. Lison, P. Schuh, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Phys. Rev. A 61, 013405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heideman, H. G. M.

P. A. Molenaar, P. van der Straten, and H. G. M. Heideman, Phys. Rev. A 55, 605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Helmcke, J.

U. Sterr, K. Sengstock, W. Ertmer, F. Riehle, and J. Helmcke, in Atom Interferometry, P. R. Berman, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), pp. 293–362.
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ido, T.

T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and H. Katori, Phys. Rev. A 61, 061403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Isoya, Y.

T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and H. Katori, Phys. Rev. A 61, 061403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W.

T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julienne, P. S.

M. Machholm, P. S. Julienne, and K.-A. Suominen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 023401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R.

Y. Bidel, B. Klappauf, J. Bernard, D. Delande, G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, D. Wilkowski, and R. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Katori, H.

T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and H. Katori, Phys. Rev. A 61, 061403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Katori, in Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, P. Gill, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002), pp. 323–330.
[CrossRef]

Klappauf, B.

Y. Bidel, B. Klappauf, J. Bernard, D. Delande, G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, D. Wilkowski, and R. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kozlovsky, W. J.

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, G.

Y. Bidel, B. Klappauf, J. Bernard, D. Delande, G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, D. Wilkowski, and R. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lison, F.

F. Lison, P. Schuh, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Phys. Rev. A 61, 013405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Machholm, M.

M. Machholm, P. S. Julienne, and K.-A. Suominen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 023401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meschede, D.

F. Lison, P. Schuh, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Phys. Rev. A 61, 013405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miniatura, C.

Y. Bidel, B. Klappauf, J. Bernard, D. Delande, G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, D. Wilkowski, and R. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Molenaar, P. A.

P. A. Molenaar, P. van der Straten, and H. G. M. Heideman, Phys. Rev. A 55, 605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moosmüller, H.

Oates, C.

T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J.

J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H. Telle, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, and A. Stentz, Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Riehle, F.

J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H. Telle, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, and A. Stentz, Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Zinner, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, and E. Tiemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2292 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sterr, K. Sengstock, W. Ertmer, F. Riehle, and J. Helmcke, in Atom Interferometry, P. R. Berman, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), pp. 293–362.
[CrossRef]

Risk, W. P.

Schuh, P.

F. Lison, P. Schuh, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Phys. Rev. A 61, 013405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sengstock, K.

U. Sterr, K. Sengstock, W. Ertmer, F. Riehle, and J. Helmcke, in Atom Interferometry, P. R. Berman, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), pp. 293–362.
[CrossRef]

She, C.-Y.

Stenger, J.

J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H. Telle, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, and A. Stentz, Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H. Telle, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, and A. Stentz, Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sterr, U.

U. Sterr, K. Sengstock, W. Ertmer, F. Riehle, and J. Helmcke, in Atom Interferometry, P. R. Berman, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), pp. 293–362.
[CrossRef]

Suominen, K.-A.

M. Machholm, P. S. Julienne, and K.-A. Suominen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 023401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H.

J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H. Telle, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, and A. Stentz, Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tiemann, E.

G. Zinner, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, and E. Tiemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2292 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Straten, P.

P. A. Molenaar, P. van der Straten, and H. G. M. Heideman, Phys. Rev. A 55, 605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vance, J. D.

Vogel, K.

T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, K. R.

T. P. Dinneen, K. R. Vogel, E. Arimondo, J. L. Hall, and A. Gallagher, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 115 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wilkowski, D.

Y. Bidel, B. Klappauf, J. Bernard, D. Delande, G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, D. Wilkowski, and R. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilpers, G.

J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H. Telle, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, and A. Stentz, Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R.

J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H. Telle, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, and A. Stentz, Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zinner, G.

G. Zinner, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, and E. Tiemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2292 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zondy, J.-J.

J.-J. Zondy, Opt. Commun. 81, 427 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

T. P. Dinneen, K. R. Vogel, E. Arimondo, J. L. Hall, and A. Gallagher, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 115 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J.-J. Zondy, Opt. Commun. 81, 427 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and H. Katori, Phys. Rev. A 61, 061403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Molenaar, P. van der Straten, and H. G. M. Heideman, Phys. Rev. A 55, 605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Lison, P. Schuh, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Phys. Rev. A 61, 013405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Stenger, T. Binnewies, G. Wilpers, F. Riehle, H. Telle, J. Ranka, R. Windeler, and A. Stentz, Phys. Rev. A 63, 021802 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Machholm, P. S. Julienne, and K.-A. Suominen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 023401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

Y. Bidel, B. Klappauf, J. Bernard, D. Delande, G. Labeyrie, C. Miniatura, D. Wilkowski, and R. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zinner, T. Binnewies, F. Riehle, and E. Tiemann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2292 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, S. Diddams, K. Vogel, C. Oates, E. Curtis, W. Lee, W. Itano, R. Drullinger, J. Bergquist, and L. Hollberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4996 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Katori, T. Ido, Y. Isoya, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

One way for further optimization would be to allow a variable η along this axis.

U. Sterr, K. Sengstock, W. Ertmer, F. Riehle, and J. Helmcke, in Atom Interferometry, P. R. Berman, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1997), pp. 293–362.
[CrossRef]

H. Katori, in Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology, P. Gill, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2002), pp. 323–330.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., D. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995–1996).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Dashed lines represent the pump laser for sum-frequency mixing. By means of several acousto-optic modulators (AOMs), four different frequencies are generated near 461 nm. A weak beam probes atoms from Oven 2 to lock the laser on the atomic line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluorescence of the trapped atoms: 8×108 and 1.3×109 atoms are trapped for oven temperatures of 600 and 630 °C, respectively. The inset in (a) is a zoom of the fluorescence induced by the probe beam sent to the atoms after the MOT beams are switched off at t=0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Longitudinal magnetic field in the Zeeman slower versus distance from the entrance (z). The dashed curve is the optimal computed field. The actual field was measured with the magnetic shield around the coils (triangles) and without (squares), with a probe of spatial resolution 1 cm. (b) Fluorescence of the Zeeman-slowed atoms (see text). Several times 1010 atoms/s are slowed to a mean velocity of 25 m/s (δ=-30 MHz) within a velocity spread of 25(5) m/s (50 MHz FWHM).

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