Abstract

Bragg gratings are used in several photonic devices to reflect, and thus to isolate, specific wavelengths of light. Gratings can be photoinduced in chalcogenide glasses by illumination of bandgap light in an interference pattern. We used holographic interferometry to create Bragg gratings in amorphous As2Se3 thin films with a period of 0.56 µm by illumination with 633-nm light. The quality of the gratings was tested in real time, and refractive-index modulations as high as 0.037 were measured. These gratings were found to be stable over a period of several months if they were kept in the dark.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002 (2)

2001 (1)

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulegoc, A. Villeneuve, and T. Galstian, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

A. Zakery, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 769 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, Electron. Lett. 32, 666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, M. Sheffler, and A. Schwuchow, Electron. Lett. 32, 1220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, T. Kaino, and I. Yokohama, Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, S. C.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aggrawal, I. D.

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, T. Kaino, and I. Yokohama, Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

DeCorby, R. G.

DeNeufville, J. P.

J. P. DeNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1973/74).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

Elliott, S. R.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ewen, P. J. S.

A. Zakery, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 769 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T.

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulegoc, A. Villeneuve, and T. Galstian, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T. V.

Galstyan, T. V.

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harbold, J. M.

Haugen, C. J.

Hewak, D. W.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, Electron. Lett. 32, 666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, Electron. Lett. 32, 666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. O.

Jensen, T.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, Electron. Lett. 32, 666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, T. Kaino, and I. Yokohama, Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, S. O.

Kirchhof, J.

J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, M. Sheffler, and A. Schwuchow, Electron. Lett. 32, 1220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knystautas, E. J.

Kobelke, J.

J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, M. Sheffler, and A. Schwuchow, Electron. Lett. 32, 1220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kolobov, A.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Le Foulegoc, K.

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulegoc, A. Villeneuve, and T. Galstian, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McMullin, J. N.

Meneghini, C.

Moss, S. C.

J. P. DeNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1973/74).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

Ohara, T.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, T. Kaino, and I. Yokohama, Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ovshinsky, S. R.

J. P. DeNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1973/74).
[CrossRef]

Owen, A. E.

A. Zakery, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 769 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, Electron. Lett. 32, 666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, G.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. A.

Robinson, T. G.

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulegoc, A. Villeneuve, and T. Galstian, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, Electron. Lett. 32, 666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schwuchow, A.

J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, M. Sheffler, and A. Schwuchow, Electron. Lett. 32, 1220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

Sheffler, M.

J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, M. Sheffler, and A. Schwuchow, Electron. Lett. 32, 1220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shimakawa, K.

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tonchev, D.

van Popta, A. C.

Viens, J. F.

Villeneuve, A.

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulegoc, A. Villeneuve, and T. Galstian, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Galstyan, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

Yokohama, I.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, T. Kaino, and I. Yokohama, Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 769 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

K. Shimakawa, A. Kolobov, and S. R. Elliott, Adv. Phys. 44, 475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, Electron. Lett. 32, 666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, M. Sheffler, and A. Schwuchow, Electron. Lett. 32, 1220 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, T. Kaino, and I. Yokohama, Electron. Lett. 32, 1396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

A. Saliminia, K. Le Foulegoc, A. Villeneuve, and T. Galstian, Fiber Integr. Opt. 20, 151 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. DeNeufville, S. C. Moss, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191 (1973/74).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery, P. J. S. Ewen, and A. E. Owen, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 769 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used to photoinduce Bragg gratings in chalcogenide glass. PD1 and PD2 are photodetectors used for measuring the diffraction efficiency of the gratings; other abbreviations are defined in text. Inset, microscopic photograph of a typical grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency of four individual gratings recorded during illumination of As2Se3 thin film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive-index modulation of four individual gratings recorded during exposure as a function of the two-beam exposure energy. The peak recorded change was Δn=0.037.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Λ=λw/2sinΦ.
sin α=λprobe/2nΛ,
I0Ii=exp-Kzcos αcos2πΔnzλ cos α+cosh2ΔKz4 cos α-1,
I1Ii=exp-Kzcosαsin2πΔnzλ cos α+sinh2ΔKz4 cos α.
η=I1I0=tan2πΔnzλ cos α.

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