Abstract

We demonstrate that laser annealing of Mo/Si multilayers can be used to make controlled modifications of the surface figure of an optical substrate on a nanometer scale. In this experiment a superpolished optical flat was exposed to single pulses from an excimer laser to produce surface depressions of widths that varied from 10 µm to 0.5 mm and of depths in the range 2–50 nm. Simulations of thermally induced contraction of the Mo/Si multilayers are in good agreement with the observed deformations and indicate that the technique can be extended to larger deformations and higher resolution.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, and C. Montcalm, “Correction of localized shape errors on optical surfaces by altering the localized density of surface or near-surface layers,” U.S. patent applied for March1, 2002.
  3. D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. B. Mirkarimi, D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, J. W. Elmer, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 81 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. We used the Zygo white-light interferometer fabricated by Zygo Corporation, Middlefield, Conn.
  7. We used the commercial software package FlexPDE developed by PDE Solutions, Inc., Antioch, Calif. (2002).
  8. D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2000).
  9. R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, and Y. Cheng, Appl. Opt. 32, 6975 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

P. B. Mirkarimi, D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, J. W. Elmer, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. L.

P. B. Mirkarimi, D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, J. W. Elmer, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, and Y. Cheng, Appl. Opt. 32, 6975 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Elmer, J. W.

P. B. Mirkarimi, D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, J. W. Elmer, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Folta, J. A.

J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, and C. Montcalm, “Correction of localized shape errors on optical surfaces by altering the localized density of surface or near-surface layers,” U.S. patent applied for March1, 2002.

Gaines, D. P.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

P. B. Mirkarimi, D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, J. W. Elmer, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kania, D. R.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kassner, M. E.

Kestner, R. N.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

La Fontaine, B.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mirkarimi, P. B.

P. B. Mirkarimi, D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, J. W. Elmer, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, and C. Montcalm, “Correction of localized shape errors on optical surfaces by altering the localized density of surface or near-surface layers,” U.S. patent applied for March1, 2002.

Rosen, R. S.

Sommargren, G. E.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

P. B. Mirkarimi, D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, J. W. Elmer, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, and Y. Cheng, Appl. Opt. 32, 6975 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, M. B.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stith, J. H.

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. S.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

P. B. Mirkarimi, D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, J. W. Elmer, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. S.

J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, and C. Montcalm, “Correction of localized shape errors on optical surfaces by altering the localized density of surface or near-surface layers,” U.S. patent applied for March1, 2002.

Tichenor, D. A.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, S. P.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Rosen, D. G. Stearns, M. A. Viliardos, M. E. Kassner, S. P. Vernon, and Y. Cheng, Appl. Opt. 32, 6975 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viliardos, M. A.

Zernike, F.

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, M. B. Stearns, Y. Cheng, J. H. Stith, and N. M. Ceglio, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 2415 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Mirkarimi, D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, J. W. Elmer, D. W. Sweeney, and E. M. Gullikson, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 81 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

D. R. Kania, D. P. Gaines, D. S. Sweeney, G. E. Sommargren, B. La Fontaine, S. P. Vernon, D. A. Tichenor, J. E. Bjorkholm, F. Zernike, and R. N. Kestner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14, 3706 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. S. Taylor, J. A. Folta, and C. Montcalm, “Correction of localized shape errors on optical surfaces by altering the localized density of surface or near-surface layers,” U.S. patent applied for March1, 2002.

We used the Zygo white-light interferometer fabricated by Zygo Corporation, Middlefield, Conn.

We used the commercial software package FlexPDE developed by PDE Solutions, Inc., Antioch, Calif. (2002).

D. R. Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 3rd ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the laser-annealing experiment. The Mo/Si multilayer deposited upon a fused-silica substrate was exposed to a single pulse from an excimer laser. The illumination was through a Mo-on-glass mask in contact with the top surface of the multilayer. 10-µm-wide and 0.5-mm-wide spaces in the Mo layer defined the exposure pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of the surface topography of a Mo/Si multilayer obtained with a Zygo white-light interferometer. The zigzag feature is an approximately 2-nm-deep and 10-µm-wide indentation of the surface. The incoming laser flux was 305 J/cm2 at a wavelength of 308 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of peak depression on laser flux. No depressions were detected below 305 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Four line profiles of the surface depression in the multilayer (symbols) and the simulated surface profile (solid curve) for a laser fluence of 305 mJ/cm2. The profiles were taken at the midpoints between the corners of the zigzag feature.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Physical Properties Used for Calculating Time-Dependent Temperature Profiles

Equations (2)

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ΔΛ=Λ0-αw-w0,
wwt-D0 exp-EakT=0,

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