Abstract

We describe a novel confocal microscope that uses separate low-numerical-aperture objectives with the illumination and collection axes crossed at angle θ from the midline. This architecture collects images in scattering media with high transverse and axial resolution, long working distance, large field of view, and reduced noise from scattered light. We measured transverse and axial (FWHM) resolution of 1.3 and 2.1 µm, respectively, in free space, and confirm subcellular resolution in excised esophageal mucosa. The optics may be scaled to millimeter dimensions and fiber coupled for collection of high-resolution images in vivo.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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