Abstract

We numerically study the possibilities for improved large-mode-area endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibers for use in high-power delivery applications. By carefully choosing the optimal hole diameter, we find that a triangular core formed by three missing neighboring air holes considerably improves the mode area and loss properties compared with the case with a core formed by one missing air hole. In a realized fiber we demonstrate an enhancement of the mode area by 30% without a corresponding increase in the attenuation.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, Science 296, 276 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).
  6. B. J. Mangan, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 26, 1469 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg are preparing a manuscript called “Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibers.”
  8. M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Lett. 28, 236 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. A. Mortensen, Opt. Express 10, 341 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, Opt. Lett. 27, 1684 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 1358 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botton, and M. J. Steel, Opt. Lett. 26, 1660 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1313 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg, Opt. Express 10, 475 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. D. Love, IEE Proc. J 136, 225 (1989).
  20. G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 27, 1013 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (5)

2001 (7)

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botton, and M. J. Steel, Opt. Lett. 26, 1660 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).

B. J. Mangan, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 26, 1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1989 (1)

J. D. Love, IEE Proc. J 136, 225 (1989).

Arriaga, J.

Atkin, D. M.

Barkou, S. E.

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 27, 1013 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 26, 1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Lett. 28, 236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Botton, L. C.

Broeng, J.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cregan, R. F.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Sandro, J.-P.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

Folkenberg, J. R.

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Lett. 28, 236 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg, Opt. Express 10, 475 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg are preparing a manuscript called “Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibers.”

Hansen, T. P.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. R.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kakarantzas, G.

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, Science 296, 276 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).

B. J. Mangan, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 26, 1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knudsen, E.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Libori, S. E. B.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, IEE Proc. J 136, 225 (1989).

Mangan, B. J.

B. J. Mangan, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 26, 1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

Mogilevstev, D.

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N. A.

N. A. Mortensen, Opt. Express 10, 341 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg, Opt. Express 10, 475 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg are preparing a manuscript called “Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibers.”

Nielsen, M. D.

Russell, P. St. J.

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 27, 1013 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, Science 296, 276 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).

B. J. Mangan, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 26, 1469 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saitoh, K.

M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, T.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Vienne, G.

White, T. P.

Electron. Lett. (3)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. De Sandro, Electron. Lett. 34, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Electron. Lett. 36, 1358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. J (1)

J. D. Love, IEE Proc. J 136, 225 (1989).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Science (1)

J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, Science 296, 276 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg are preparing a manuscript called “Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibers.”

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effective cladding index for the triangular cladding structure with different hole diameters. The crosses show numerical results from a fully vectorial calculation, and the solid curves are fits to Eq. (2) with α as the fitting parameter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the single-rod (dashed curves) and three-rod (solid curves) PCFs with d/Λ=0.45 and d/Λ=0.25, respectively. (a) Coupling length versus wavelength, (b) MFD as a function of wavelength. (c) Results of (a) and (b) combined in a plot of MFD versus coupling length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Attenuation for a single-rod PCF (left-hand inset) and three-rod PCF (right-hand inset) fabricated under comparable conditions and both measured with a bend radius of 16 cm. The single-rod PCF has Λ10 µm, d/Λ0.45, and a MFD of 10.5 µm, whereas the three-rod PCF has Λ6 µm, d/Λ0.25, and a MFD of 12 µm. Although the mode area of the three-rod PCF is enhanced by 30% compared with the single-rod PCF the two types of PCF have very similar attenuation.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

limλΛneff=nsi,    limλΛneff=fnair+1-fnsin¯.
neffn¯+nsi-n¯cosh-2αλ/Λ,
Aeff=drIr2drI2r-1,
ζ=2π/β-βcl
λLnζ,

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