Abstract

A smart pixel optical sensor based on positive optical feedback is described and demonstrated. The scheme uses the reflectance of an external scene as part of the positive feedback loop and uses the nonlinear characteristics of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser to obtain bistability and hysteresis. As a result, the continuous reflectance variation of the scene is mapped to a digital output with increased noise immunity for each pixel of the array.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. S. Hinton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 14 (1996).
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  2. J. V. Campenhout, H. V. Mark, J. Depreitere, and J. Dambre, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 306 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kurokawa, S. Matso, T. Nakahara, K. Tateno, Y. Ohiso, A. Wakatsuki, and H. Tsuda, Appl. Opt. 37, 194 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. B. Miller, Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155 (1997).
  5. T. G. Morris and S. P. DeWeerth, Electron. Lett. 31, 1998 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Ikeda, K. Tsuji, T. Asai, H. Yonezu, and J. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 261 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. S. Chung, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Makynen, T. Rahkonen, and J. Kostamovaara, Sensors Actuators A 65, 45 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Ramdane, F. Devaux, N. Souli, D. Delprat, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 326 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Wang, J. F. Luo, K. V. Shenoy, Y. Royter, C. G. Fonstad, and D. Psaltis, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 607 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. F. Ahadian and C. G. Fonstad, Opt. Eng. 37, 3161 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Azadeh, W. R. Babbitt, and R. B. Darling, Opt. Lett. 23, 786 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. V. Campenhout, H. V. Mark, J. Depreitere, and J. Dambre, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. S. Chung, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

A. Makynen, T. Rahkonen, and J. Kostamovaara, Sensors Actuators A 65, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ikeda, K. Tsuji, T. Asai, H. Yonezu, and J. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurokawa, S. Matso, T. Nakahara, K. Tateno, Y. Ohiso, A. Wakatsuki, and H. Tsuda, Appl. Opt. 37, 194 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ahadian and C. G. Fonstad, Opt. Eng. 37, 3161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Azadeh, W. R. Babbitt, and R. B. Darling, Opt. Lett. 23, 786 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H. Wang, J. F. Luo, K. V. Shenoy, Y. Royter, C. G. Fonstad, and D. Psaltis, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 607 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155 (1997).

1996 (2)

H. S. Hinton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Ramdane, F. Devaux, N. Souli, D. Delprat, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. G. Morris and S. P. DeWeerth, Electron. Lett. 31, 1998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ahadian, J. F.

J. F. Ahadian and C. G. Fonstad, Opt. Eng. 37, 3161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Asai, T.

H. Ikeda, K. Tsuji, T. Asai, H. Yonezu, and J. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Azadeh, M.

Babbitt, W. R.

Brooke, M. A.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. S. Chung, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campenhout, J. V.

J. V. Campenhout, H. V. Mark, J. Depreitere, and J. Dambre, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K. S.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. S. Chung, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dambre, J.

J. V. Campenhout, H. V. Mark, J. Depreitere, and J. Dambre, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Darling, R. B.

Delprat, D.

A. Ramdane, F. Devaux, N. Souli, D. Delprat, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Depreitere, J.

J. V. Campenhout, H. V. Mark, J. Depreitere, and J. Dambre, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, F.

A. Ramdane, F. Devaux, N. Souli, D. Delprat, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeWeerth, S. P.

T. G. Morris and S. P. DeWeerth, Electron. Lett. 31, 1998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fonstad, C. G.

J. F. Ahadian and C. G. Fonstad, Opt. Eng. 37, 3161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, J. F. Luo, K. V. Shenoy, Y. Royter, C. G. Fonstad, and D. Psaltis, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 607 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

H. S. Hinton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, H.

H. Ikeda, K. Tsuji, T. Asai, H. Yonezu, and J. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. S. Chung, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joo, Y.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. S. Chung, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kostamovaara, J.

A. Makynen, T. Rahkonen, and J. Kostamovaara, Sensors Actuators A 65, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

Luo, J. F.

H. Wang, J. F. Luo, K. V. Shenoy, Y. Royter, C. G. Fonstad, and D. Psaltis, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 607 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Makynen, A.

A. Makynen, T. Rahkonen, and J. Kostamovaara, Sensors Actuators A 65, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mark, H. V.

J. V. Campenhout, H. V. Mark, J. Depreitere, and J. Dambre, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matso, S.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155 (1997).

Morris, T. G.

T. G. Morris and S. P. DeWeerth, Electron. Lett. 31, 1998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, T.

Ohiso, Y.

Ougazzaden, A.

A. Ramdane, F. Devaux, N. Souli, D. Delprat, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. S. Chung, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

H. Wang, J. F. Luo, K. V. Shenoy, Y. Royter, C. G. Fonstad, and D. Psaltis, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 607 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rahkonen, T.

A. Makynen, T. Rahkonen, and J. Kostamovaara, Sensors Actuators A 65, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ramdane, A.

A. Ramdane, F. Devaux, N. Souli, D. Delprat, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Royter, Y.

H. Wang, J. F. Luo, K. V. Shenoy, Y. Royter, C. G. Fonstad, and D. Psaltis, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 607 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shenoy, K. V.

H. Wang, J. F. Luo, K. V. Shenoy, Y. Royter, C. G. Fonstad, and D. Psaltis, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 607 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

H. Ikeda, K. Tsuji, T. Asai, H. Yonezu, and J. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Souli, N.

A. Ramdane, F. Devaux, N. Souli, D. Delprat, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tateno, K.

Thomas, M.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. S. Chung, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, H.

Tsuji, K.

H. Ikeda, K. Tsuji, T. Asai, H. Yonezu, and J. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wakatsuki, A.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, J. F. Luo, K. V. Shenoy, Y. Royter, C. G. Fonstad, and D. Psaltis, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 607 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wills, D. S.

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. S. Chung, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yonezu, H.

H. Ikeda, K. Tsuji, T. Asai, H. Yonezu, and J. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. G. Morris and S. P. DeWeerth, Electron. Lett. 31, 1998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

Y. Joo, J. Park, M. Thomas, K. S. Chung, M. A. Brooke, N. M. Jokerst, and D. S. Wills, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 296 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Hinton, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Campenhout, H. V. Mark, J. Depreitere, and J. Dambre, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 306 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ramdane, F. Devaux, N. Souli, D. Delprat, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Ikeda, K. Tsuji, T. Asai, H. Yonezu, and J. Shin, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Wang, J. F. Luo, K. V. Shenoy, Y. Royter, C. G. Fonstad, and D. Psaltis, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 607 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155 (1997).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. F. Ahadian and C. G. Fonstad, Opt. Eng. 37, 3161 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sensors Actuators A (1)

A. Makynen, T. Rahkonen, and J. Kostamovaara, Sensors Actuators A 65, 45 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of proposed SPSI sensor and the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Graphic solution for the VCSEL biasing point as a function of reflectance variations in the scene.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results for the VCSEL biasing point and optical output. Squares, optical output power; diamonds, VCSEL bias current.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L=1GFAαRI-1FAαRIbias,
L=LI.
R1=Ith-GIbiasαGFALth,
R2=Isat-GIbiasαGFALsat.

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