Abstract

We describe a novel technique for contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography (OCT) that makes possible molecular-specific imaging for what is believed to be the first time. A pump–probe technique is employed in which a pulsed pump laser is tuned to ground-state absorption in a molecule of interest. The location of the target molecule population is derived from the resulting transient absorption of OCT sample-arm light acting as probe light. A signal processing technique for three-dimensional localization of the transient absorption signal is described, and preliminary results exhibiting OCT contrast from methylene blue dye in multilayer and scattering phantoms are presented.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2001

M. I. Canto, Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

J. M. Schmitt, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Gratz and A. Penzkofer, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 127, 21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

I. Carmichael and G. L. Hug, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 15, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Petris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Petris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Petris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canto, M. I.

M. I. Canto, Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmichael, I.

I. Carmichael and G. L. Hug, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 15, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Clark, G.

G. Clark and H. J. Conn, Staining Procedures (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1981).

Conn, H. J.

G. Clark and H. J. Conn, Staining Procedures (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1981).

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuji, T.

T. Fuji, T. Yoda, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kartner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 25, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Petris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratz, H.

H. Gratz and A. Penzkofer, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 127, 21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, T.

T. Fuji, T. Yoda, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hug, G. L.

I. Carmichael and G. L. Hug, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 15, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

S. Yazdanfar, M. D. Kulkarni, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 1, 424 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, and M. V. Sivak, “Depth-resolved spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” U.S. patent6,002,480 (December14, 1999).

Kartner, F. X.

Kulkarni, M. D.

S. Yazdanfar, M. D. Kulkarni, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Express 1, 424 (1997), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, and M. V. Sivak, “Depth-resolved spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” U.S. patent6,002,480 (December14, 1999).

Li, X. D.

Milner, T. E.

Morgner, U.

Nakatsuka, H.

T. Fuji, T. Yoda, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J. S.

Penzkofer, A.

H. Gratz and A. Penzkofer, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 127, 21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

J. W. Perry, in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 813–840.

Petris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Petris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sivak, M. V.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, and M. V. Sivak, “Depth-resolved spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” U.S. patent6,002,480 (December14, 1999).

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Petris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Petris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gamert, M. J. C.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yoda, T.

T. Fuji, T. Yoda, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc.

M. I. Canto, Gastrointest. Endosc. 54, 403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. M. Schmitt, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A

H. Gratz and A. Penzkofer, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 127, 21 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

I. Carmichael and G. L. Hug, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 15, 1 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Fuji, T. Yoda, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Petris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. Clark and H. J. Conn, Staining Procedures (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md., 1981).

J. W. Perry, in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 813–840.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, and M. V. Sivak, “Depth-resolved spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” U.S. patent6,002,480 (December14, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ground-state and transient absorption of methylene blue in water. The arrows at 532 nm and 800 nm indicate the pump and probe wavelengths, respectively, used for PPOCT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental schematic of PPOCT. DM, dichroic mirror; HNF, holographic notch filter; DAQ, data acquisition board.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Timing diagram for the detection of differential (transient) absorption in PPOCT.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) and (b) Linear plots of 50 averaged OCT and PPOCT A-scans in a two-level well phantom containing pure water and 0.5mM methylene blue dye in water in alternate locations. Differential PPOCT signals appear at phantom interfaces below the level of the dye. (c) Log M-scans of OCT and PPOCT in a scattering medium (0.5mM methylene blue dye in 0.5% Liposyn) with the pump laser alternatively blocked and unblocked. (d) Log OCT and PPOCT cross-sectional images of a capillary tube containing 0.5mM methylene blue dye in 0.5% Liposyn, partially immersed in 0.5%-Liposyn without dye. The PPOCT signal localized to within the tube is clearly visualized.

Equations (2)

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Iprobe=Iprobe0 exp-μtλprobe+NTσTλprobez.
Iprobe-IprobeIprobe0-Ipump0 exp-μtλpumpzIpumpsat×N0σTλprobez.

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