Abstract

Using optical frequency-domain reflectometry to reveal the gain distribution and allow us to optimize a thulium-doped fiber amplifier, we have demonstrated 18-dB gain by employing only 5 m of a 2000-parts-in-106–Tm-doped fiber pumped with 145 mW of power at dual wavelengths of 800 and 1050 nm. The role of the 800-nm pump, which by itself does not permit population inversion, was clearly observed experimentally.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optics Communication System, 3rd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2002), Chap. 6.
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Roy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Vallart, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 24–26.
  5. F. Roy, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 568–569.
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and H. Sekita, Opt. Lett. 24, 1684 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, Electron. Lett. 36, 1607 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 31 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Roy, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, L. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, Electron. Lett. 37, 943 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995); errata 32, 173 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. S. L. Gomes, M. L. Sundheimer, M. T. Carvalho, J. F. Martins-Filho, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and W. Margulis, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. FB2-1–FB2-3.
  13. M. B. Costa e Silva, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, A. S. L. Gomes, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, and F. Carlson, Electron. Lett. 38, 729 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. A. Arbore, Y. Zhou, G. Keaton, and T. Kane, in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), p. 2.2.2.
  15. L. N. Ng, E. R. Taylor, N. P. Sessions, and R. C. Moore, in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), p. 2.2.3.

2002 (1)

M. B. Costa e Silva, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, A. S. L. Gomes, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, and F. Carlson, Electron. Lett. 38, 729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, L. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, Electron. Lett. 37, 943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, Electron. Lett. 36, 1607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1995 (2)

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995); errata 32, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optics Communication System, 3rd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2002), Chap. 6.
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M. A.

M. A. Arbore, Y. Zhou, G. Keaton, and T. Kane, in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), p. 2.2.2.

Baniel, P.

F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, L. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, Electron. Lett. 37, 943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Vallart, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 24–26.

Bastos-Filho, C. J. A.

A. S. L. Gomes, M. L. Sundheimer, M. T. Carvalho, J. F. Martins-Filho, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and W. Margulis, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. FB2-1–FB2-3.

Bayart, D.

F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, L. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, Electron. Lett. 37, 943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, F.

M. B. Costa e Silva, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, A. S. L. Gomes, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, and F. Carlson, Electron. Lett. 38, 729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, M. T.

M. B. Costa e Silva, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, A. S. L. Gomes, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, and F. Carlson, Electron. Lett. 38, 729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. L. Sundheimer, M. T. Carvalho, J. F. Martins-Filho, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and W. Margulis, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. FB2-1–FB2-3.

Costa e Silva, M. B.

M. B. Costa e Silva, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, A. S. L. Gomes, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, and F. Carlson, Electron. Lett. 38, 729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

M. B. Costa e Silva, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, A. S. L. Gomes, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, and F. Carlson, Electron. Lett. 38, 729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. L. Sundheimer, M. T. Carvalho, J. F. Martins-Filho, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and W. Margulis, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. FB2-1–FB2-3.

Kanamori, T.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kane, T.

M. A. Arbore, Y. Zhou, G. Keaton, and T. Kane, in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), p. 2.2.2.

Kasamatsu, T.

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, Electron. Lett. 36, 1607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and H. Sekita, Opt. Lett. 24, 1684 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keaton, G.

M. A. Arbore, Y. Zhou, G. Keaton, and T. Kane, in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), p. 2.2.2.

Komukai, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995); errata 32, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Le Sauze, A.

F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Vallart, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 24–26.

Le Sauze, L.

F. Roy, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, L. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, Electron. Lett. 37, 943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leplingard, F.

F. Roy, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, L. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, Electron. Lett. 37, 943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lorcy, L.

F. Roy, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, L. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, Electron. Lett. 37, 943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

M. B. Costa e Silva, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, A. S. L. Gomes, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, and F. Carlson, Electron. Lett. 38, 729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. L. Sundheimer, M. T. Carvalho, J. F. Martins-Filho, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and W. Margulis, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. FB2-1–FB2-3.

Martins-Filho, J. F.

A. S. L. Gomes, M. L. Sundheimer, M. T. Carvalho, J. F. Martins-Filho, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and W. Margulis, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. FB2-1–FB2-3.

Miyajima, Y.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995); errata 32, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. C.

L. N. Ng, E. R. Taylor, N. P. Sessions, and R. C. Moore, in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), p. 2.2.3.

Ng, L. N.

L. N. Ng, E. R. Taylor, N. P. Sessions, and R. C. Moore, in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), p. 2.2.3.

Ohishi, Y.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ono, T.

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, Electron. Lett. 36, 1607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roy, F.

F. Roy, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, L. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, Electron. Lett. 37, 943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Vallart, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 24–26.

F. Roy, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 568–569.
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sekita, H.

Sessions, N. P.

L. N. Ng, E. R. Taylor, N. P. Sessions, and R. C. Moore, in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), p. 2.2.3.

Shimizu, M.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sudo, S.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sugawa, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995); errata 32, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sundheimer, M. L.

M. B. Costa e Silva, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, A. S. L. Gomes, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, and F. Carlson, Electron. Lett. 38, 729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. L. Sundheimer, M. T. Carvalho, J. F. Martins-Filho, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and W. Margulis, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. FB2-1–FB2-3.

Taylor, E. R.

L. N. Ng, E. R. Taylor, N. P. Sessions, and R. C. Moore, in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), p. 2.2.3.

Terunuma, Y.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vallart, D.

F. Roy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Vallart, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 24–26.

von der Weid, J. P.

M. B. Costa e Silva, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, A. S. L. Gomes, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, and F. Carlson, Electron. Lett. 38, 729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995); errata 32, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yano, Y.

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, Electron. Lett. 36, 1607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and H. Sekita, Opt. Lett. 24, 1684 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

M. A. Arbore, Y. Zhou, G. Keaton, and T. Kane, in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), p. 2.2.2.

Electron. Lett. (3)

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, Electron. Lett. 36, 1607 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, F. Leplingard, L. Lorcy, L. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, Electron. Lett. 37, 943 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Costa e Silva, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, A. S. L. Gomes, J. P. von der Weid, W. Margulis, and F. Carlson, Electron. Lett. 38, 729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1880 (1995); errata 32, 173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, and S. Sudo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Roy, D. Bayart, A. Le Sauze, and P. Baniel, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 788 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (6)

F. Roy, A. Le Sauze, P. Baniel, and D. Vallart, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, N. Jolley, J. D. Minelly, and Y. Nakano, eds., Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 24–26.

F. Roy, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 568–569.
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, M. L. Sundheimer, M. T. Carvalho, J. F. Martins-Filho, C. J. A. Bastos-Filho, and W. Margulis, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2002), Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. FB2-1–FB2-3.

M. A. Arbore, Y. Zhou, G. Keaton, and T. Kane, in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), p. 2.2.2.

L. N. Ng, E. R. Taylor, N. P. Sessions, and R. C. Moore, in Proceedings of IEEE European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), p. 2.2.3.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optics Communication System, 3rd ed. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 2002), Chap. 6.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for OFDR measurements in a TDFA: LO, reflector acting as a local oscillator; BG, fiber Bragg grating; PD, InGaAs photodiode; FFT, fast-Fourier-transform spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal gain and gain enhancement versus distance along the Tm-doped fiber. Triangles, 80-mW pump power at 1050 nm and 45-mW pump power at 800 nm. Crosses, 80-mW pump power at 1050 nm and no pump at 800 nm. Signal power, -2.6 dBm (550 µW) at 1480 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal gain versus distance along the 40-m long Tm-doped fiber. Signal power is -6 dBm (250 µW) at 1460 nm. (a) Various pump powers whose values are listed. (b) Pump power at 800 nm fixed at 100 mW: Bottom to top, power at 1050 nm is 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mW.

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