Abstract

We investigate both theoretically and experimentally the induced spectral attenuation in an all-silica photonic crystal fiber subjected to periodic axial microdeformations. The induced attenuation spectra show discrete attenuation peaks with a spectral position that is dependent on the period of the induced deformation. The peaks are assumed to be the result of mode coupling between the fundamental mode and a highly lossy higher-order mode. This assumption is verified through numerical calculation of the beat length between these two modes. Excellent agreement between experiment and numerical predictions of the spectral position of the attenuation peaks is obtained.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper FA9.
  3. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 25 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. P. Hansen, J. J. Larsen, J. R. Jensen, S. Keiding, J. Broeng, H. R. Simonsen, and A. Bjarklev, presented at the LEOS 14th Annual Meeting, San Diego, Calif., November 11–15, 2001.
  5. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. D. Nielsen, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, G. Vienne, and A. Bjarklev, paper 03.4.2 presented at the 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.
  7. C. B. Probst, A. Bjarklev, and S. B. Andersen, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 55 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Bjarklev and S. B. Andersen, Electron. Lett. 25, 417 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, K. Hougaard, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, and J. Broeng, paper We.L.2.4 presented at the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 30–October 4, 2001.
  10. V. Arya, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1998 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).
  12. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. Martijn de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, Opt. Lett. 26, 488 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

2001 (4)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, Opt. Express 8, 173 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. Martijn de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, Opt. Lett. 26, 488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

V. Arya, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

C. B. Probst, A. Bjarklev, and S. B. Andersen, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 55 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev and S. B. Andersen, Electron. Lett. 25, 417 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, S. B.

C. B. Probst, A. Bjarklev, and S. B. Andersen, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 55 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev and S. B. Andersen, Electron. Lett. 25, 417 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Arya, V.

V. Arya, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev and S. B. Andersen, Electron. Lett. 25, 417 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Probst, A. Bjarklev, and S. B. Andersen, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 55 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Hansen, J. J. Larsen, J. R. Jensen, S. Keiding, J. Broeng, H. R. Simonsen, and A. Bjarklev, presented at the LEOS 14th Annual Meeting, San Diego, Calif., November 11–15, 2001.

M. D. Nielsen, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, G. Vienne, and A. Bjarklev, paper 03.4.2 presented at the 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, K. Hougaard, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, and J. Broeng, paper We.L.2.4 presented at the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 30–October 4, 2001.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper FA9.

Botten, L. C.

Broeng, J.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper FA9.

A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, K. Hougaard, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, and J. Broeng, paper We.L.2.4 presented at the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 30–October 4, 2001.

K. P. Hansen, J. J. Larsen, J. R. Jensen, S. Keiding, J. Broeng, H. R. Simonsen, and A. Bjarklev, presented at the LEOS 14th Annual Meeting, San Diego, Calif., November 11–15, 2001.

Claus, R. O.

V. Arya, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, K. P.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper FA9.

K. P. Hansen, J. J. Larsen, J. R. Jensen, S. Keiding, J. Broeng, H. R. Simonsen, and A. Bjarklev, presented at the LEOS 14th Annual Meeting, San Diego, Calif., November 11–15, 2001.

Hansen, T. P.

A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, K. Hougaard, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, and J. Broeng, paper We.L.2.4 presented at the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 30–October 4, 2001.

Hougaard, K.

A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, K. Hougaard, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, and J. Broeng, paper We.L.2.4 presented at the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 30–October 4, 2001.

Jacobsen, C.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper FA9.

M. D. Nielsen, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, G. Vienne, and A. Bjarklev, paper 03.4.2 presented at the 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

Jensen, J. R.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper FA9.

K. P. Hansen, J. J. Larsen, J. R. Jensen, S. Keiding, J. Broeng, H. R. Simonsen, and A. Bjarklev, presented at the LEOS 14th Annual Meeting, San Diego, Calif., November 11–15, 2001.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Keiding, S.

K. P. Hansen, J. J. Larsen, J. R. Jensen, S. Keiding, J. Broeng, H. R. Simonsen, and A. Bjarklev, presented at the LEOS 14th Annual Meeting, San Diego, Calif., November 11–15, 2001.

Knight, J. C.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knudsen, E.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, K. Hougaard, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, and J. Broeng, paper We.L.2.4 presented at the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 30–October 4, 2001.

Larsen, J. J.

K. P. Hansen, J. J. Larsen, J. R. Jensen, S. Keiding, J. Broeng, H. R. Simonsen, and A. Bjarklev, presented at the LEOS 14th Annual Meeting, San Diego, Calif., November 11–15, 2001.

Libori, S. E. B.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, K. Hougaard, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, and J. Broeng, paper We.L.2.4 presented at the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 30–October 4, 2001.

Mangan, B. J.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martijn de Sterke, C.

McPhedran, R. C.

Murphy, K. A.

V. Arya, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. D.

M. D. Nielsen, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, G. Vienne, and A. Bjarklev, paper 03.4.2 presented at the 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

Petersson, A.

M. D. Nielsen, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, G. Vienne, and A. Bjarklev, paper 03.4.2 presented at the 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper FA9.

Probst, C. B.

C. B. Probst, A. Bjarklev, and S. B. Andersen, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 55 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russel, P. St. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonsen, H. R.

M. D. Nielsen, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, G. Vienne, and A. Bjarklev, paper 03.4.2 presented at the 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper FA9.

K. P. Hansen, J. J. Larsen, J. R. Jensen, S. Keiding, J. Broeng, H. R. Simonsen, and A. Bjarklev, presented at the LEOS 14th Annual Meeting, San Diego, Calif., November 11–15, 2001.

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper FA9.

Sørensen, T.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Stentz, A. J.

Vienne, G.

M. D. Nielsen, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, G. Vienne, and A. Bjarklev, paper 03.4.2 presented at the 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

Wang, A.

V. Arya, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

Windeler, R. S.

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Bjarklev and S. B. Andersen, Electron. Lett. 25, 417 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, Electron. Lett. 37, 287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, and P. St. J. Russell, IEICE Trans. Electron. E84-C, 585 (2001).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

C. B. Probst, A. Bjarklev, and S. B. Andersen, J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 55 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. Arya, K. A. Murphy, A. Wang, and R. O. Claus, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1998 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russel, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

K. P. Hansen, J. R. Jensen, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, J. Broeng, P. M. W. Skovgaard, A. Petersson, and A. Bjarklev, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper FA9.

K. P. Hansen, J. J. Larsen, J. R. Jensen, S. Keiding, J. Broeng, H. R. Simonsen, and A. Bjarklev, presented at the LEOS 14th Annual Meeting, San Diego, Calif., November 11–15, 2001.

M. D. Nielsen, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, H. R. Simonsen, G. Vienne, and A. Bjarklev, paper 03.4.2 presented at the 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–12, 2002.

A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, K. Hougaard, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, and J. Broeng, paper We.L.2.4 presented at the 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2001), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 30–October 4, 2001.

(International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, microscope picture of the cleaved end facet of the investigated fiber (outer diameter, 125 µm). Right, close up of the core region of the investigated fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated mode index as a function of wavelength for the first and third eigenvalues (solid and dashed curves, respectively) in the case of a perfectly uniform structure with Λ and d as the fabricated fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated beat length between the fundamental mode and first higher-order mode for a perfect structure with parameters as the fabricated fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured attenuation peaks A–F, sorted by wavelength. The spectra are given in arbitrary units.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated and Measured Data for the Attenuation Peaks shown in Fig. 3

Equations (1)

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LB=2πβ1-β2=2πn12π/λ-n22π/λ=λn1-n2,

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