Abstract

We present a transmission-mode confocal laser scanning microscope system based on the use of second-harmonic generation (SHG) for signal detection. Our method exploits the quadratic intensity dependence of SHG to preferentially reveal unscattered signal light and reject out-of-focus scattered background. The SHG crystal acts as a virtual pinhole that remains self-aligned without the need for descanning.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Minsky, “Microscopy Apparatus,” U.S. patent3,013,467 (November7, 1957).
  2. T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).
  3. A. E. Dixon, S. Damaskinos, and M. R. Atkinson, Nature 351, 551 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 117, 233 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999).
  6. C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).
  7. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. E. Dixon, S. Damaskinos, and M. R. Atkinson, Nature 351, 551 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 117, 233 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, M. R.

A. E. Dixon, S. Damaskinos, and M. R. Atkinson, Nature 351, 551 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999).

Brakenhoff, G. J.

G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 117, 233 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Damaskinos, S.

A. E. Dixon, S. Damaskinos, and M. R. Atkinson, Nature 351, 551 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dixon, A. E.

A. E. Dixon, S. Damaskinos, and M. R. Atkinson, Nature 351, 551 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D.

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

Minsky, M.

M. Minsky, “Microscopy Apparatus,” U.S. patent3,013,467 (November7, 1957).

Sheppard, C.

T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999).

J. Microsc. (1)

G. J. Brakenhoff, J. Microsc. 117, 233 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. E. Dixon, S. Damaskinos, and M. R. Atkinson, Nature 351, 551 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1999).

C. Bohren and D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983).

M. Minsky, “Microscopy Apparatus,” U.S. patent3,013,467 (November7, 1957).

T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, London, 1984).

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