Abstract

We present an optical method for information watermarking of three-dimensional (3D) objects by digital holography. A hidden image is embedded by double phase encoding in a phase-shift digital hologram of the 3D object. We decode the watermarked hologram to reconstruct the hidden image and the 3D object. We use either the entire hologram or a part of it to decode the hidden image. Experiments are presented to illustrate the ability to recover both the 3D object and the decoded hidden image. Digital holograms of the 3D object are obtained by optical experiments. The watermarking process, 3D object reconstruction, and hidden image recovery are performed digitally. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of 3D object watermarking by use of a phase encoding technique and digital holography.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2002

S. Kishk and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 41, 5470 (2002).

2001

N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, Advances in Information Security, Vol. I of Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking—Attacks and Countermeasures (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001).

J. Rosen and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 40, 3346 (2001).

2000

B. Javidi and E. Tajahuerce, Opt. Lett. 25, 610 (2000).

G. C. Langelaar, I. Setyawan, and R. L. Lagendijk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 17(5), 20 (2000).

1997

B. Javidi, A. Sergent, G. Zhang, and L. Guibert, Opt. Eng. 36, 992 (1997).

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 22, 1268 (1997).

1996

W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, and L. Lu, IBM Syst. J. 35, 313 (1996).

1995

1974

Bender, W.

W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, and L. Lu, IBM Syst. J. 35, 313 (1996).

Brangaccio, D. J.

Bruninig, J. H.

Caulfield, H. J.

H. J. Caulfield, Handbook of Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1979).

Duric, Z.

N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, Advances in Information Security, Vol. I of Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking—Attacks and Countermeasures (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001).

Gallagher, J. E.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

Gruhl, D.

W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, and L. Lu, IBM Syst. J. 35, 313 (1996).

Guibert, L.

B. Javidi, A. Sergent, G. Zhang, and L. Guibert, Opt. Eng. 36, 992 (1997).

Herriott, D. R.

Hosinger, C.

C. Hosinger and M. Rabbani, presented at the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing, Las Vegas, Nev., March 27–29, 2000.

Jajodia, S.

N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, Advances in Information Security, Vol. I of Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking—Attacks and Countermeasures (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001).

Javidi, B.

S. Kishk and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 41, 5470 (2002).

J. Rosen and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 40, 3346 (2001).

B. Javidi and E. Tajahuerce, Opt. Lett. 25, 610 (2000).

B. Javidi, A. Sergent, G. Zhang, and L. Guibert, Opt. Eng. 36, 992 (1997).

P. Refregier and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 20, 767 (1995).

Johnson, N. F.

N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, Advances in Information Security, Vol. I of Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking—Attacks and Countermeasures (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001).

Kishk, S.

S. Kishk and B. Javidi, Appl. Opt. 41, 5470 (2002).

Lagendijk, R. L.

G. C. Langelaar, I. Setyawan, and R. L. Lagendijk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 17(5), 20 (2000).

Langelaar, G. C.

G. C. Langelaar, I. Setyawan, and R. L. Lagendijk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 17(5), 20 (2000).

Lu, L.

W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, and L. Lu, IBM Syst. J. 35, 313 (1996).

Morimoto, N.

W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, and L. Lu, IBM Syst. J. 35, 313 (1996).

Rabbani, M.

C. Hosinger and M. Rabbani, presented at the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing, Las Vegas, Nev., March 27–29, 2000.

Refregier, P.

Rosen, J.

Rosenfeld, D. P.

Sergent, A.

B. Javidi, A. Sergent, G. Zhang, and L. Guibert, Opt. Eng. 36, 992 (1997).

Setyawan, I.

G. C. Langelaar, I. Setyawan, and R. L. Lagendijk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 17(5), 20 (2000).

Tajahuerce, E.

White, A. D.

Yamaguchi, I.

Zhang, G.

B. Javidi, A. Sergent, G. Zhang, and L. Guibert, Opt. Eng. 36, 992 (1997).

Zhang, T.

Appl. Opt.

IBM Syst. J.

W. Bender, D. Gruhl, N. Morimoto, and L. Lu, IBM Syst. J. 35, 313 (1996).

IEEE Signal Process. Mag.

G. C. Langelaar, I. Setyawan, and R. L. Lagendijk, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 17(5), 20 (2000).

Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking—Attacks and Countermeasures

N. F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, Advances in Information Security, Vol. I of Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking—Attacks and Countermeasures (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001).

Opt. Eng.

B. Javidi, A. Sergent, G. Zhang, and L. Guibert, Opt. Eng. 36, 992 (1997).

Opt. Lett.

Other

C. Hosinger and M. Rabbani, presented at the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing, Las Vegas, Nev., March 27–29, 2000.

H. J. Caulfield, Handbook of Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1979).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

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