Abstract

The effect of stress-induced birefringence on polarization-dependent transmission characteristics was thoroughly investigated for a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) that was fabricated by use of a stress relaxation method with a CO2 laser. A series of two-dimensional axial stress profiles for one complete period of a LPFG was measured with an optical tomographic measurement technique. We found that the asymmetry in the stress distribution of the cladding was much larger than in the core of the LPFG. The splitting of polarization-dependent loss peaks in the optical transmission spectrum was calculated based on the measured asymmetric stress profiles and was compared with an experimental result.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatina, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, Opt. Lett. 21, 692 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440 (2000).
  6. O. Duhem and M. Douay, Electron. Lett. 36, 416 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Park, T.-J. Ahn, Y. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, U. C. Paek, and D. Y. Kim, Appl. Opt. 41, 21 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Abe, Y. Mitsunaga, and H. Koga, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 133 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Puro and K. E. Kell, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1010 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 2000), Chap. 3.
  12. Y. Park, U.-C. Paek, and D. Kim, Opt. Lett. 27, 1291 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Park, U.-C. Paek, and D. Y. Kim, Opt. Lett. 27, 1217 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2000 (3)

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440 (2000).

O. Duhem and M. Douay, Electron. Lett. 36, 416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1992 (1)

A. Puro and K. E. Kell, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1010 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Abe, T.

Ahn, T.-J.

Akiyama, M.

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440 (2000).

Anemogiannis, E.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

Bhatia, V.

Bhatina, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatina, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Braiwish, M. I.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, C. R.

Davis, D. D.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

O. Duhem and M. Douay, Electron. Lett. 36, 416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Duhem, O.

O. Duhem and M. Douay, Electron. Lett. 36, 416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatina, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, B. D.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.-T.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatina, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kell, K. E.

A. Puro and K. E. Kell, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1010 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, Y. H.

Koga, H.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, P. J. Lemaire, N. S. Bergano, and C. R. Davidson, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatina, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitsunaga, Y.

Nishide, K.

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440 (2000).

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 2000), Chap. 3.

Paek, U. C.

Paek, U.-C.

Park, Y.

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Puro, A.

A. Puro and K. E. Kell, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1010 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatina, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Wiggeren, G. D.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wada, A.

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440 (2000).

Yamasaki, S.

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440 (2000).

Yamauchi, R.

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

O. Duhem and M. Douay, Electron. Lett. 36, 416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, Electron. Lett. 36, 1354 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

S. Yamasaki, M. Akiyama, K. Nishide, A. Wada, and R. Yamauchi, IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 440 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Puro and K. E. Kell, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1010 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatina, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 2000), Chap. 3.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization-dependent transmission spectrum of the LPFG. Spectrum 1 and Spectrum 2 are the two orthogonally polarized input lights. The inset shows a broad transmission spectrum with an unpolarized input light source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional stress distributions of the LPFG for (a) the unexposed region by a CO2 laser and (b) the exposed region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stress distribution of the LPFG on a section cut along the fiber axis for one grating period.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variations in effective refractive indices for the HE11 core mode and the HE13 cladding mode of the fiber along the propagation direction in the LPFG.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔKpqr,θK˜pqr,θ=δpqKpqr=2nrC1-C2σpqr,θ+C2δpq×k=r,θ,zσkkr,θ:p,q=r,θ,z,
jddzAB=c11c12c21c22AB,
cij=ω002π0Ei*ΔKEjrdrdθ02π0zˆEi*×Hi+Ei×Hi*rdrdθ,  i,j=1,2.

Metrics