Abstract

Good-quality polycrystalline BaTiO3 thin films are deposited on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The deposition parameters are optimized to achieve optical-quality films with an attenuation coefficient of 4 dB/cm at the 633-nm wavelength. Thin-film electro-optic Mach–Zehnder modulators are fabricated with standard lithography and ion-beam etching. The waveguides patterned by lithography are the ridge type, and they ensure single-mode propagation in the wavelength range of 633–1550 nm. An electro-optic coefficient of 22 pm/V is estimated for the polycrystalline BaTiO3 films.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Gunter, M. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941 (1994).
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1998 (3)

R. McKee, F. Walker, and M. Chisholm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3014 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and C. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Barrios and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1017 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Gill, B. Block, C. Conrad, B. Wessels, and S. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

F. J. Walker, R. A. McKee, Y. Huan-Wun, and D. E. Zelmon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1495 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Gunter, M. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Robins, D. L. Kaiser, L. D. Rotter, P. K. Schenck, G. T. Stauf, and D. Rytz, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Barrios, P.

P. Barrios and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1017 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, L.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and C. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernasconi, P.

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Gunter, M. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Block, B.

D. Gill, B. Block, C. Conrad, B. Wessels, and S. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buchal, C.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and C. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chisholm, M.

R. McKee, F. Walker, and M. Chisholm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3014 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, C.

D. Gill, B. Block, C. Conrad, B. Wessels, and S. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Duelli, M.

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Gunter, M. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eckau, A.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and C. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, M.

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Gunter, M. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

D. Gill, B. Block, C. Conrad, B. Wessels, and S. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Gunter, M. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S.

D. Gill, B. Block, C. Conrad, B. Wessels, and S. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huan-Wun, Y.

F. J. Walker, R. A. McKee, Y. Huan-Wun, and D. E. Zelmon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1495 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, D. L.

L. H. Robins, D. L. Kaiser, L. D. Rotter, P. K. Schenck, G. T. Stauf, and D. Rytz, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

P. Barrios and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1017 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leinenbach, P.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and C. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McKee, R.

R. McKee, F. Walker, and M. Chisholm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3014 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McKee, R. A.

F. J. Walker, R. A. McKee, Y. Huan-Wun, and D. E. Zelmon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1495 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Robins, L. H.

L. H. Robins, D. L. Kaiser, L. D. Rotter, P. K. Schenck, G. T. Stauf, and D. Rytz, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rotter, L. D.

L. H. Robins, D. L. Kaiser, L. D. Rotter, P. K. Schenck, G. T. Stauf, and D. Rytz, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rytz, D.

L. H. Robins, D. L. Kaiser, L. D. Rotter, P. K. Schenck, G. T. Stauf, and D. Rytz, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Gunter, M. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schenck, P. K.

L. H. Robins, D. L. Kaiser, L. D. Rotter, P. K. Schenck, G. T. Stauf, and D. Rytz, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schlesser, R.

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Gunter, M. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, J.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and C. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stauf, G. T.

L. H. Robins, D. L. Kaiser, L. D. Rotter, P. K. Schenck, G. T. Stauf, and D. Rytz, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Torge, R.

Ulrich, R.

Walker, F.

R. McKee, F. Walker, and M. Chisholm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3014 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, F. J.

F. J. Walker, R. A. McKee, Y. Huan-Wun, and D. E. Zelmon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1495 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, B.

D. Gill, B. Block, C. Conrad, B. Wessels, and S. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Gunter, M. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zander, W.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and C. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zelmon, D. E.

F. J. Walker, R. A. McKee, Y. Huan-Wun, and D. E. Zelmon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1495 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Gunter, M. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Gunter, M. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ziesmann, J.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and C. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Barrios and H. K. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1017 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Gill, B. Block, C. Conrad, B. Wessels, and S. Ho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2968 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Walker, R. A. McKee, Y. Huan-Wun, and D. E. Zelmon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1495 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. H. Robins, D. L. Kaiser, L. D. Rotter, P. K. Schenck, G. T. Stauf, and D. Rytz, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 7487 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and C. Buchal, J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Zgonik, P. Bernasconi, M. Duelli, R. Schlesser, P. Gunter, M. Garrett, D. Rytz, Y. Zhu, and X. Wu, Phys. Rev. B 50, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. McKee, F. Walker, and M. Chisholm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3014 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Grazing-incidence XRD spectrum of as-grown polycrystalline BaTiO3 deposited on MgO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM image of 1µm-thick polycrystalline BaTiO3 film on MgO. Scanned area is 1 µm×1 µm, z=2.5 nm/div.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) m-line spectra measured with the prism-coupling setup at the 633-nm wavelength. (b) Scattered intensity from the first in-plane polarization mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM photograph of cleaved BaTiO3 on a MgO sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for electro-optic measurements. The voltage is applied with contact needles. The incoming light is in-plane polarized.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Response of the modulator while the applied voltage is changed at the 633- and 1550-nm wavelengths. The voltage was applied to one arm of the modulator, and the electrode spacing was 10 µm.

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