Abstract

Illumination of a lithium niobate or lithium tantalate crystal along the crystallographic c axis with coherent light while simultaneously applying an external electrical field through transparent electrodes allows real-time, in situ, nondestructive monitoring of ferroelectric domain patterns. Imaging of the optical near-field through a lens directly visualizes the domain walls, whereas the far-field yields averaged information about the spatial orientation of the domain boundaries.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Mangel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yamada, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4010 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Houé and P. D. Townsend, J. Phys. D 28, 1747 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. J. Swart, and U. Mohideen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4106 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. C. Wengler, M. Müller, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 76, 393 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Gopalan, S. S. A. Gerstl, A. Itagi, T. E. Mitchell, Q. X. Jia, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1638 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Nassau, H. J. Levinste, and G. M. Loiacono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 228 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Fries and S. Bauschulte, Phys. Status Solidi A 125, 369 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Jazbinsek and M. Zgonik, Appl. Phys. B 74, 407 (2002).
  12. V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. C. Wengler, M. Müller, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 76, 393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Jazbinsek and M. Zgonik, Appl. Phys. B 74, 407 (2002).

2000 (2)

M. Yamada, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4010 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

V. Gopalan, S. S. A. Gerstl, A. Itagi, T. E. Mitchell, Q. X. Jia, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. J. Swart, and U. Mohideen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Houé and P. D. Townsend, J. Phys. D 28, 1747 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Mangel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Fries and S. Bauschulte, Phys. Status Solidi A 125, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

K. Nassau, H. J. Levinste, and G. M. Loiacono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 228 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bauschulte, S.

S. Fries and S. Bauschulte, Phys. Status Solidi A 125, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brillert, C.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G. R.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buse, K.

M. C. Wengler, M. Müller, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 76, 393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Mangel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Mangel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Flörsheimer, M.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fries, S.

S. Fries and S. Bauschulte, Phys. Status Solidi A 125, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, H.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gerstl, S. S. A.

V. Gopalan, S. S. A. Gerstl, A. Itagi, T. E. Mitchell, Q. X. Jia, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, V.

V. Gopalan, S. S. A. Gerstl, A. Itagi, T. E. Mitchell, Q. X. Jia, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. J. Swart, and U. Mohideen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heuer, L.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Houé, M.

M. Houé and P. D. Townsend, J. Phys. D 28, 1747 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Itagi, A.

V. Gopalan, S. S. A. Gerstl, A. Itagi, T. E. Mitchell, Q. X. Jia, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jazbinsek, M.

M. Jazbinsek and M. Zgonik, Appl. Phys. B 74, 407 (2002).

Jia, Q. X.

V. Gopalan, S. S. A. Gerstl, A. Itagi, T. E. Mitchell, Q. X. Jia, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Mangel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kubitscheck, U.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levinste, H. J.

K. Nassau, H. J. Levinste, and G. M. Loiacono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 228 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Loiacono, G. M.

K. Nassau, H. J. Levinste, and G. M. Loiacono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 228 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Mangel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Mangel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, T. E.

V. Gopalan, S. S. A. Gerstl, A. Itagi, T. E. Mitchell, Q. X. Jia, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mohideen, U.

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. J. Swart, and U. Mohideen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

M. C. Wengler, M. Müller, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 76, 393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

K. Nassau, H. J. Levinste, and G. M. Loiacono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 228 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Offerhaus, H. L.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paschotta, R.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, G. W.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlesinger, T. E.

V. Gopalan, S. S. A. Gerstl, A. Itagi, T. E. Mitchell, Q. X. Jia, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, G.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soergel, E.

M. C. Wengler, M. Müller, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 76, 393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stancil, D. D.

V. Gopalan, S. S. A. Gerstl, A. Itagi, T. E. Mitchell, Q. X. Jia, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. J.

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. J. Swart, and U. Mohideen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

M. Houé and P. D. Townsend, J. Phys. D 28, 1747 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, C.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wengler, M. C.

M. C. Wengler, M. Müller, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 76, 393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wohler, W.

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4010 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T. J.

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. J. Swart, and U. Mohideen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

M. Jazbinsek and M. Zgonik, Appl. Phys. B 74, 407 (2002).

Appl. Phys. B (3)

M. Flörsheimer, R. Paschotta, U. Kubitscheck, C. Brillert, D. Hofmann, L. Heuer, G. Schreiber, C. Verbeek, W. Wohler, and H. Fuchs, Appl. Phys. B 67, 593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Wengler, M. Müller, E. Soergel, and K. Buse, Appl. Phys. B 76, 393 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Jazbinsek and M. Zgonik, Appl. Phys. B 74, 407 (2002).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

V. Gopalan, T. E. Mitchell, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Nassau, H. J. Levinste, and G. M. Loiacono, Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 228 (1965).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Mangel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Gopalan, S. S. A. Gerstl, A. Itagi, T. E. Mitchell, Q. X. Jia, T. E. Schlesinger, and D. D. Stancil, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

M. Houé and P. D. Townsend, J. Phys. D 28, 1747 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yang, V. Gopalan, P. J. Swart, and U. Mohideen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

S. Fries and S. Bauschulte, Phys. Status Solidi A 125, 369 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Yamada, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 4010 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic depiction of the setup used for the visualization of ferroelectric domains. (a) With lens, to image the near field. (b) Without lens, to view the far field. HV, high voltage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-field images of partially poled (a) LiNbO3 and (b) LiTaO3 crystals obtained with light of the wavelengths λ=351.1 nm and λ=334.4 nm, respectively, without an external electrical field. The domain boundaries and the hexagonal and triangular shapes of the domains are clearly visible.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(c) Typical far-field images of partially poled LiNbO3 crystals [(a) and (b)] and a LiTaO3 crystal (c) obtained with light of the wavelength λ=351.1 nm and an external electrical field of E=12 kV/mm. The main beam is blocked. (d)–(f) Parts of the respective domain structures in the crystals made visible by selective etching in hydrofluoric acid.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Principle of the domain visualization in the near field. A plane wave traverses a crystal with a domain boundary causing a phase shift of π. The curves show calculated light intensity profiles at different distances z from the crystal.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Behavior of the Contrast of the Domain Boundaries in Lithium Niobate Crystals in the Near Field for Different Wavelengths λ

Equations (1)

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Δφλ/2π=2Δnd+n0Δd=-r13n03+2n0k3U,

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