Abstract

Refractive-index changes can be induced by filamentation of 800-nm, 1-kHz femtosecond laser pulses in silica glass. Two-dimensional translation of a 40µm-long filament leads to the formation of a curved waveguide because of bending by the previously induced refractive-index change. The fabrication of 2-mm directional couplers to split the coupled beam into 1:1 at a wavelength of 632.8 nm is demonstrated. The realization of three-dimensional directional couplers and wavelength division in the output from the couplers is also demonstrated.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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2003 (2)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (3)

2000 (2)

W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Yamada, J. Nishii, and K. Hayashi, K. Itoh, Opt. Lett. 25, 1669 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000), Chap. 4.

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1972 (1)

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972).

Becker, A.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubutsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidove, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 75, 595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, E. F.

Brodeur, A.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

Chin, S. L.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubutsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidove, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 75, 595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gaeta, A. L.

Garcia, J. F.

Glezer, N.

N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Golubutsov, I. S.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubutsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidove, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 75, 595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hayashi, K.

Hirao, K.

Homoelle, D.

Ippen, E. P.

Itoh, K.

Iwasaki, A.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubutsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidove, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 75, 595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kandidove, V. P.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubutsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidove, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 75, 595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubutsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidove, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 75, 595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubutsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidove, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 75, 595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972).

Mazur, E.

Minoshima, K.

Miura, K.

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Opt. 41, 4360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000), Chap. 4.

Schaffer, C. B.

Smith, C.

Sugimoto, N.

Toma, T.

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Opt. 41, 4360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, W.

Wielandy, W.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Opt. 41, 4360 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, Appl. Phys. A 77, 109 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubutsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidove, and S. L. Chin, Appl. Phys. B 75, 595 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1889 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Other (2)

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000), Chap. 4.

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of a directional coupler. (b) Optical image of the fabricated coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-field pattern of the coupler output at 633 nm for (a) L=0.5 mm and (b) L=1.0 mm. Insets, cross sections of outputs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-field pattern of the coupler output when the visible white light was coupled for (a) L=0.5 mm and (b) L=1.0 mm. Insets, output spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of a three-dimensional directional coupler. Near-field patterns of coupler output when (b) coupling to a He–Ne laser at a wavelength of 632.8 nm (the image was obtained with a monochromatic CCD camera) and (c) coupling to a broadband light source (SC) (the image was obtained with a color CCD camera).

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