Abstract

A sensor design that uses a grating-coupled multimode planar optical waveguide for absolute detection of the refractive indices of liquids or gases is presented. The waveguide consists of a simple 50µm-thick, free-standing glass plate with air beneath it and the sample to be analyzed on top of it. This design offers a simple alternative to the well-known monomode waveguides, and, owing to its so-called reverse-symmetry configuration, a large detection range can be obtained.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Tiefenthaler and W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 209 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Brandenburg and R. Henninger, Appl. Opt. 25, 5941 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 37 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. J. Watts, C. R. Lowe, and D. V. Pollardknight, Anal. Chem. 66, 2465 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Horvath, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 415 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. BIOS-1, ASI AG, Zürich, Switzerland; IAsys, Affinity Sensors, Cambridge, UK; Analight Bio200, Farfield Sensors, Ltd., Manchester, UK; OWLS 110, MicroVacuum, Budapest, Hungary.
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    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. R. C. Weast, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983).
  21. P. K. Tien, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

2003

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, N. Skivesen, D. Selmeczi, and N. B. Larsen, Opt. Lett. 28, 1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. B 74, 383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. H. Santos, A. Takatsu, and K. Kato, Opt. Lett. 27, 689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

Ch. Stamm, R. Dangel, and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 153, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Kunz, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Ch. Stamm and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. Brandenburg and R. Henninger, Appl. Opt. 25, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Watts, C. R. Lowe, and D. V. Pollardknight, Anal. Chem. 66, 2465 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1984

1983

R. C. Weast, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983).

1977

P. K. Tien, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brandenburg, A.

A. Brandenburg and R. Henninger, Appl. Opt. 25, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dangel, R.

Ch. Stamm, R. Dangel, and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 153, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dübendorfer, J.

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edlinger, J.

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fricsovszky, G.

R. Horvath, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R. D.

Heideman, R. G.

R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henninger, R.

A. Brandenburg and R. Henninger, Appl. Opt. 25, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, R.

R. Horvath, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, N. Skivesen, D. Selmeczi, and N. B. Larsen, Opt. Lett. 28, 1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. B 74, 383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jager, E. W. H.

R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

Kunz, R. E.

R. E. Kunz, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, N. B.

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, N. Skivesen, D. Selmeczi, and N. B. Larsen, Opt. Lett. 28, 1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. B 74, 383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lindvold, L. R.

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. B 74, 383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, C. R.

H. J. Watts, C. R. Lowe, and D. V. Pollardknight, Anal. Chem. 66, 2465 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukosz, W.

Ch. Stamm, R. Dangel, and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 153, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Stamm and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tiefenthaler and W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Tiefenthaler and W. Lukosz, Opt. Lett. 9, 137 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maisenhölder, B.

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, N.

Moser, H. R.

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moser, M.

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Papp, E.

R. Horvath, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, H. C.

Pollardknight, D. V.

H. J. Watts, C. R. Lowe, and D. V. Pollardknight, Anal. Chem. 66, 2465 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, Z. M.

Quigley, G. R.

Riel, P.

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. H.

Selmeczi, D.

Skivesen, N.

Stamm, Ch.

Ch. Stamm, R. Dangel, and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 153, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Stamm and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takatsu, A.

Tiefenthaler, K.

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Veldhuis, G. J.

R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watts, H. J.

H. J. Watts, C. R. Lowe, and D. V. Pollardknight, Anal. Chem. 66, 2465 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Zappe, H. P.

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

H. J. Watts, C. R. Lowe, and D. V. Pollardknight, Anal. Chem. 66, 2465 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. B 74, 383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

R. Horvath, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

Ch. Stamm, R. Dangel, and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 153, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Mod. Phys.

P. K. Tien, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Kunz, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Stamm and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

BIOS-1, ASI AG, Zürich, Switzerland; IAsys, Affinity Sensors, Cambridge, UK; Analight Bio200, Farfield Sensors, Ltd., Manchester, UK; OWLS 110, MicroVacuum, Budapest, Hungary.

R. C. Weast, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Waveguide configuration and sensor design. The He–Ne laser beam is fixed, while the waveguide, the cuvette, and a detector are rotated to vary the angle of incidence α.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode-intensity spectra of water, water with 5% w/w NaSCN, and water with 10% w/w NaSCN.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretically calculated mode numbers versus coupling angle for the waveguide with the three sample liquids used in the experiments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sample RI obtained from the coupling angle of the highest-order mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Resolution of sample RI detection.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sinαm=Nm-λ/Λ,
mπ=kdFnF2-Nm21/2-arctannFnC2ρNm2-nC2nF2-Nm21/2-arctannFnS2ρNm2-nS2nF2-Nm21/2.
nCsinαm,max+λ/Λ,

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