Abstract

A sensor design that uses a grating-coupled multimode planar optical waveguide for absolute detection of the refractive indices of liquids or gases is presented. The waveguide consists of a simple 50µm-thick, free-standing glass plate with air beneath it and the sample to be analyzed on top of it. This design offers a simple alternative to the well-known monomode waveguides, and, owing to its so-called reverse-symmetry configuration, a large detection range can be obtained.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Tiefenthaler and W. Lukosz, Opt. Lett. 9, 137 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Tiefenthaler and W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 209 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Brandenburg and R. Henninger, Appl. Opt. 25, 5941 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. E. Kunz, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 13 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. R. Quigley, R. D. Harris, and J. S. Wilkinson, Appl. Opt. 38, 6036 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 37 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Ch. Stamm and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Ch. Stamm, R. Dangel, and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 153, 347 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. J. Watts, C. R. Lowe, and D. V. Pollardknight, Anal. Chem. 66, 2465 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Horvath, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 415 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, N. Skivesen, D. Selmeczi, and N. B. Larsen, Opt. Lett. 28, 1233 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. BIOS-1, ASI AG, Zürich, Switzerland; IAsys, Affinity Sensors, Cambridge, UK; Analight Bio200, Farfield Sensors, Ltd., Manchester, UK; OWLS 110, MicroVacuum, Budapest, Hungary.
  16. R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. B 74, 383 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. M. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. H. Santos, A. Takatsu, and K. Kato, Opt. Lett. 27, 689 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. C. Weast, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983).
  21. P. K. Tien, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, N. Skivesen, D. Selmeczi, and N. B. Larsen, Opt. Lett. 28, 1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. B 74, 383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Qi, N. Matsuda, J. H. Santos, A. Takatsu, and K. Kato, Opt. Lett. 27, 689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

Ch. Stamm, R. Dangel, and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 153, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Kunz, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

Ch. Stamm and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. Brandenburg and R. Henninger, Appl. Opt. 25, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Watts, C. R. Lowe, and D. V. Pollardknight, Anal. Chem. 66, 2465 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

R. C. Weast, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983).

1977 (1)

P. K. Tien, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brandenburg, A.

A. Brandenburg and R. Henninger, Appl. Opt. 25, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dangel, R.

Ch. Stamm, R. Dangel, and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 153, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dübendorfer, J.

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edlinger, J.

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fricsovszky, G.

R. Horvath, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R. D.

Heideman, R. G.

R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henninger, R.

A. Brandenburg and R. Henninger, Appl. Opt. 25, 5941 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, R.

R. Horvath, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, N. Skivesen, D. Selmeczi, and N. B. Larsen, Opt. Lett. 28, 1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. B 74, 383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jager, E. W. H.

R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

Kunz, R. E.

R. E. Kunz, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, N. B.

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, N. Skivesen, D. Selmeczi, and N. B. Larsen, Opt. Lett. 28, 1233 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. B 74, 383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lindvold, L. R.

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. B 74, 383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, C. R.

H. J. Watts, C. R. Lowe, and D. V. Pollardknight, Anal. Chem. 66, 2465 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukosz, W.

Ch. Stamm, R. Dangel, and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 153, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Stamm and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tiefenthaler and W. Lukosz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Tiefenthaler and W. Lukosz, Opt. Lett. 9, 137 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maisenhölder, B.

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, N.

Moser, H. R.

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moser, M.

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Papp, E.

R. Horvath, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, H. C.

Pollardknight, D. V.

H. J. Watts, C. R. Lowe, and D. V. Pollardknight, Anal. Chem. 66, 2465 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, Z. M.

Quigley, G. R.

Riel, P.

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Santos, J. H.

Selmeczi, D.

Skivesen, N.

Stamm, Ch.

Ch. Stamm, R. Dangel, and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 153, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Stamm and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takatsu, A.

Tiefenthaler, K.

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Veldhuis, G. J.

R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watts, H. J.

H. J. Watts, C. R. Lowe, and D. V. Pollardknight, Anal. Chem. 66, 2465 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Zappe, H. P.

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

H. J. Watts, C. R. Lowe, and D. V. Pollardknight, Anal. Chem. 66, 2465 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. B 74, 383 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Horvath, H. C. Pedersen, and N. B. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2166 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

R. Horvath, G. Fricsovszky, and E. Papp, Biosens. Bioelectron. 18, 415 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

R. Horvath, L. R. Lindvold, and N. B. Larsen, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

Ch. Stamm, R. Dangel, and W. Lukosz, Opt. Commun. 153, 347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

P. K. Tien, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

W. Lukosz, Ch. Stamm, H. R. Moser, R. Ryf, and J. Dübendorfer, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (5)

R. G. Heideman, G. J. Veldhuis, E. W. H. Jager, and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 35–36, 234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Kunz, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Maisenhölder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38–39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 29, 37 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Stamm and W. Lukosz, Sens. Actuators B 31, 203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

BIOS-1, ASI AG, Zürich, Switzerland; IAsys, Affinity Sensors, Cambridge, UK; Analight Bio200, Farfield Sensors, Ltd., Manchester, UK; OWLS 110, MicroVacuum, Budapest, Hungary.

R. C. Weast, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1983).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Waveguide configuration and sensor design. The He–Ne laser beam is fixed, while the waveguide, the cuvette, and a detector are rotated to vary the angle of incidence α.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode-intensity spectra of water, water with 5% w/w NaSCN, and water with 10% w/w NaSCN.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretically calculated mode numbers versus coupling angle for the waveguide with the three sample liquids used in the experiments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sample RI obtained from the coupling angle of the highest-order mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Resolution of sample RI detection.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sinαm=Nm-λ/Λ,
mπ=kdFnF2-Nm21/2-arctannFnC2ρNm2-nC2nF2-Nm21/2-arctannFnS2ρNm2-nS2nF2-Nm21/2.
nCsinαm,max+λ/Λ,

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