Abstract

An extremely short long-period grating (LPG) with strong resonance has been developed in a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by use of the heat source of a CO2 laser. We believe that such a LPG in pure silica PCF is the first example to be obtained with the point-by-point technique. The fabrication method is simple and repeatable. The resulting LPG has 8 periods, written by a CO2 laser, within a 2.8-mm length of fiber, which yields a deep notch of core–cladding mode coupling of -31.5 dB at the telecommunication wavelength of 1529.2 nm, with a FWHM of 0.7 nm. The principal advantages of this LPG are that it is practical, cost effective, and compact.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003 (3)

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

C. Y. Lin and L. A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, M. Zimmermann, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, P. Russbuldt, K. Gabel, R. Poprawe, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 26, 1376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (4)

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, and T. A. Strasser, Opt. Lett. 24, 1460 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. de Sandro, Electron. Lett. 13, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (5)

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkin, D. M.

Bagget, J. C.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Belardi, W.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, Opt. Lett. 21, 692 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia, Opt. Express 4, 457 (1996), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Mlanch, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, F. Couny, and B. J. Mangan, Opt. Lett. 28, 158 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 27, 1013 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. de Sandro, Electron. Lett. 13, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broderick, N. G. R.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, E.

Canning, J.

Couny, F.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. de Sandro, Electron. Lett. 13, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Sandro, J.-P.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. de Sandro, Electron. Lett. 13, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Everall, L.

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Farr, L.

Folkenberg, J. R.

Furusawa, K.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gabel, K.

Groothoff, N.

Hansch, T. W.

Holzwarth, R.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kakarantzas, G.

Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, M. Zimmermann, T. Udem, T. W. Hansch, P. Russbuldt, K. Gabel, R. Poprawe, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 26, 1376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. de Sandro, Electron. Lett. 13, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 22, 961 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, Opt. Lett. 21, 1547 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, J. R. Pedrazzani, J. B. Judkins, and P. J. Lemaire, Opt. Lett. 21, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. Y.

C. Y. Lin and L. A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lyttikainen, K.

Mangan, B. J.

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Mlanch, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, L. Farr, F. Couny, and B. J. Mangan, Opt. Lett. 28, 158 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mogilevstev, D.

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. D.

Ortigosa-Mlanch, A.

Pedrazzani, J. R.

Poprawe, R.

Ranka, J. K.

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russbuldt, P.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spalter, S.

Stentz, A. J.

Strasser, T. A.

Udem, T.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Vienne, G.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, L. A.

C. Y. Lin and L. A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P. S.

Williams, J. A. R.

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Zagari, J.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, M.

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. de Sandro, Electron. Lett. 13, 1347 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Zhang, Y. Liu, L. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. Y. Lin and L. A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. M. Monro, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, J. C. Bagget, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 854 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (11)

Science (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, Science 285, 1537 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrograph of a cross section of a large-mode-area PCF used in the fabrication of LPG.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: CO2, laser; PCF, photonic crystal fiber; CCD, camera; OM, optical micrograph; SLD, superluminescent diode; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical micrograph of a section of LPG after the PCF is treated by the heat source of a CO2 laser, Λ equals a 1-period spacing of 350 µm, and the diameter of the cladding neck is 101.4 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of the LPG in a large-mode-area PCF for four different periods.

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