Abstract

We demonstrate long-period fiber gratings whose attenuation can be changed by 25 dB over a 48-nm spectral band, with ambient-index changes of only 2.7×10-4. To achieve this, the fiber waveguide is engineered to induce coupling between the core and a highly ambient-sensitive cladding mode with identical group velocities. The device schematic allows arbitrarily high index sensitivities to be achieved, which makes it an attractive platform for realizing sensors and modulators that respond to small index changes.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, Z. Wang, and M. Yan, Opt. Lett. 27, 1678 (2002).
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  3. S. Ramachandran, Z. Wang, and M. Yan, Opt. Lett. 27, 698 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Yin, O. Leonov, K. Chung, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuB2.
  7. C. D. Poole, J. M. Weisenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 25, 203 (2000).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2002 (3)

2001 (1)

H. Jeong and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 199, 103 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

C. D. Poole, J. M. Weisenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746 (1994).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

Bennion, I.

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bucholtz, F.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chung, K.

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K. Chung, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuB2.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

C. D. Poole, J. M. Weisenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746 (1994).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[Crossref]

Feinberg, J.

Ghalmi, S.

Grubsky, V.

Jeong, H.

H. Jeong and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 199, 103 (2001).
[Crossref]

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kersey, A. D.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kurtz, P.

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K. Chung, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuB2.

Lemaire, P. L.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[Crossref]

Leonov, O.

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K. Chung, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuB2.

Miyagi, M.

Nishida, S.

Oh, K.

H. Jeong and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 199, 103 (2001).
[Crossref]

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606 (1998).
[Crossref]

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole, J. M. Weisenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

Reichard, K.

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K. Chung, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuB2.

Shu, X.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[Crossref]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. D. Poole, J. M. Weisenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Weisenfeld, J. M.

C. D. Poole, J. M. Weisenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

Yin, S.

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K. Chung, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuB2.

Zhang, L.

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, and F. Bucholtz, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1606 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 255 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. L. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. D. Poole, J. M. Weisenfeld, D. J. DiGiovanni, and A. M. Vengsarkar, J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1746 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Jeong and K. Oh, Opt. Commun. 199, 103 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (1)

S. Yin, O. Leonov, K. Chung, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Postconference Digest, Vol. 37 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), paper TuB2.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Phase-matching curve at different ambient indices. TAP yields a broadband spectrum. (b) Strength change instead of spectral shift with changing ambient index.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of TAP LPG with different ambient indices. (a) Ambient index of 1.4325 yields a sensitivity of 0.0050. (b) Ambient index of 1.4440 yields a sensitivity of 0.0015. (c) Ambient index of 1.4486 yields a sensitivity of 0.0004. Sensitivity increases as the ambient index approaches the silica index.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Index sensitivity versus ambient index decreases monotonically. A record sensitivity of 2.7×10-4 is observed. Theory matches well with experiment.

Equations (2)

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δ=12β01-β0m-2πΛ,
dβ0mdnsur=um2λres2ncl4π2rcl3nsurncl2-nsur23/2,

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