Abstract

Lasing at resonantly coupled whispering-gallery mode frequencies is observed in photonic molecules consisting of bispheres of 4.2 and 5.1 µm in diameter placed in a silicon V-groove. We examine spatial profiles of photonic molecule modes by use of frequency-resolved imaging and reveal bonding and antibonding mode features. From the lasing threshold characteristics, we quantitatively measure the quality factor and the spontaneous-emission coupling ratio of the photonic molecule modes and confirm that strong coherent coupling leads to photonic molecule modes.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Scherer, Opt. Lett. 24, 711 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Lidorikis, M. M. Sigalas, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1405 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Zhuk, D. V. Regelman, D. Gershoni, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, R. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115302 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. G. Garret, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, Phys. Rev. 124, 1807 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  7. See, for example, Optical Processes in Microcavities, R. K. Chang and A. J. Campillo, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).
  8. R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H.-B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, Opt. Mater. 9, 12 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Ishikuro, T. Fujii, T. Saraya, G. Hashiguchi, T. Hiramoto, and T. Ikoma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3585 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. The WGM of a single sphere can be specified by the polarization (TE or TM), mode number l (total angular momentum), and order number s (radial quantum number). Because of the spherical symmetry, each mode has (2l+1)-fold degeneracy that corresponds to the azimuthal mode number (z component of angular momentum).
  16. H. Miyazaki and Y. Jimba, Phys. Rev. B 62, 7976 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Proc. SPIE 3930, 175 (2000).
  18. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1989), Chap. 9.

2002 (1)

V. Zhuk, D. V. Regelman, D. Gershoni, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, R. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Miyazaki and Y. Jimba, Phys. Rev. B 62, 7976 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Proc. SPIE 3930, 175 (2000).

1999 (2)

A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Scherer, Opt. Lett. 24, 711 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

E. Lidorikis, M. M. Sigalas, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, Opt. Mater. 9, 12 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

H. Ishikuro, T. Fujii, T. Saraya, G. Hashiguchi, T. Hiramoto, and T. Ikoma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, Optical Processes in Microcavities, R. K. Chang and A. J. Campillo, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

1993 (1)

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H.-B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1989), Chap. 9.

1980 (1)

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

C. G. Garret, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, Phys. Rev. 124, 1807 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, M.

V. Zhuk, D. V. Regelman, D. Gershoni, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, R. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bond, W. L.

C. G. Garret, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, Phys. Rev. 124, 1807 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Brune, M.

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Campillo, A. J.

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H.-B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Collot, L.

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

E. Lidorikis, M. M. Sigalas, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ema, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eversole, J. D.

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H.-B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forchel, A.

V. Zhuk, D. V. Regelman, D. Gershoni, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, R. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

H. Ishikuro, T. Fujii, T. Saraya, G. Hashiguchi, T. Hiramoto, and T. Ikoma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garret, C. G.

C. G. Garret, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, Phys. Rev. 124, 1807 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Gershoni, D.

V. Zhuk, D. V. Regelman, D. Gershoni, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, R. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gutbrod, T.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hashiguchi, G.

H. Ishikuro, T. Fujii, T. Saraya, G. Hashiguchi, T. Hiramoto, and T. Ikoma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hiramoto, T.

H. Ishikuro, T. Fujii, T. Saraya, G. Hashiguchi, T. Hiramoto, and T. Ikoma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ikoma, T.

H. Ishikuro, T. Fujii, T. Saraya, G. Hashiguchi, T. Hiramoto, and T. Ikoma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ishikuro, H.

H. Ishikuro, T. Fujii, T. Saraya, G. Hashiguchi, T. Hiramoto, and T. Ikoma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jimba, Y.

H. Miyazaki and Y. Jimba, Phys. Rev. B 62, 7976 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

C. G. Garret, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, Phys. Rev. 124, 1807 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Knipp, P. A.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knipp, R. A.

V. Zhuk, D. V. Regelman, D. Gershoni, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, R. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Proc. SPIE 3930, 175 (2000).

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, Opt. Mater. 9, 12 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lidorikis, E.

E. Lidorikis, M. M. Sigalas, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-B.

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H.-B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyazaki, H.

H. Miyazaki and Y. Jimba, Phys. Rev. B 62, 7976 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mukaiyama, T.

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Owen, J. F.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. M.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Regelman, D. V.

V. Zhuk, D. V. Regelman, D. Gershoni, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, R. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reinecke, T. L.

V. Zhuk, D. V. Regelman, D. Gershoni, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, R. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reithmaier, J. P.

V. Zhuk, D. V. Regelman, D. Gershoni, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, R. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saraya, T.

H. Ishikuro, T. Fujii, T. Saraya, G. Hashiguchi, T. Hiramoto, and T. Ikoma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Sigalas, M. M.

E. Lidorikis, M. M. Sigalas, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

E. Lidorikis, M. M. Sigalas, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, Opt. Mater. 9, 12 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Treussart, F.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Scherer, Opt. Lett. 24, 711 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1989), Chap. 9.

Yasuda, H.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhuk, V.

V. Zhuk, D. V. Regelman, D. Gershoni, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, R. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Ishikuro, T. Fujii, T. Saraya, G. Hashiguchi, T. Hiramoto, and T. Ikoma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3585 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Kuwata-Gonokami and K. Takeda, Opt. Mater. 9, 12 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. G. Garret, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, Phys. Rev. 124, 1807 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

V. Zhuk, D. V. Regelman, D. Gershoni, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, R. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Miyazaki and Y. Jimba, Phys. Rev. B 62, 7976 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

T. Mukaiyama, K. Takeda, H. Miyazaki, Y. Jimba, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4623 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Lidorikis, M. M. Sigalas, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, and R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H.-B. Lin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 437 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, Proc. SPIE 3930, 175 (2000).

Other (3)

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1989), Chap. 9.

The WGM of a single sphere can be specified by the polarization (TE or TM), mode number l (total angular momentum), and order number s (radial quantum number). Because of the spherical symmetry, each mode has (2l+1)-fold degeneracy that corresponds to the azimuthal mode number (z component of angular momentum).

See, for example, Optical Processes in Microcavities, R. K. Chang and A. J. Campillo, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup and an image of a bisphere resonator on a silicon V-groove. A sufficient gap to support the modes exists between the bispheres and the V-groove. (w=5 µm, gap=3-1d/2, d=5.1 µm, gap=1.87 µm.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Image of a bisphere resonator on the silicon V-groove. (b) Fluorescence spectra at the center line in the spectral region TE38,1. (c) Emission spectra from the edge (open diamonds) and center (open triangles) parts. (d) Spatial profiles of the bisphere resonance modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fluorescence (bottom) and lasing (top) spectra from a dye-doped bisphere of 4.2µm diameter. Open (closed) circles at the bottom indicate the single-sphere WGM resonances of TE (TM) for the s=1 and s=2 modes. (b), (c) Threshold behavior. The dashed lines are extrapolated from the lasing region. P.L., photoluminescence.

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