Abstract

We report the development of a photon-number-resolving detector based on a fiber-optical setup and a pair of standard avalanche photodiodes. The detector is capable of resolving individual photon numbers and operates on the well-known principle by which a single-mode input state is split into a large number (eight) of output modes. We reconstruct the photon statistics of weak coherent input light from experimental data and show that there is a high probability of inferring the input photon number from a measurement of the number of detection events on a single run.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Kuhn, M. Hennrich, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 067901 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Śliwa and K. Banaszek, Phys. Rev. A 67, 030101(R) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. B. Pittman, M. M. Donegan, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, J. D. Franson, P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0303113, March 18, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0303113.
  7. P. van Loock and N. Lütkenhaus, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0304057, April 8, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0304057.
  8. W. Y. Hwang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Calsamiglia, S. M. Barnett, and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 65, 012312 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 735 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. N. Gol’tsman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Banaszek and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Lett. 28, 52 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. O. Haderka, M. Hamar, and J. Peřina Jr., arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0302154, February 20, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0302154.
  15. K. Banaszek, Phys. Rev. A 57, 5013 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon number resolution using a time-multiplexed single-photon director,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

2003 (3)

C. Śliwa and K. Banaszek, Phys. Rev. A 67, 030101(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Hwang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Banaszek and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Lett. 28, 52 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. Calsamiglia, S. M. Barnett, and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 65, 012312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuhn, M. Hennrich, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 067901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. N. Gol’tsman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Banaszek, Phys. Rev. A 57, 5013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Banaszek, K.

C. Śliwa and K. Banaszek, Phys. Rev. A 67, 030101(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Banaszek and I. A. Walmsley, Opt. Lett. 28, 52 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Banaszek, Phys. Rev. A 57, 5013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S. M.

J. Calsamiglia, S. M. Barnett, and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 65, 012312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Becher, C.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrera, B.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Calsamiglia, J.

J. Calsamiglia, S. M. Barnett, and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 65, 012312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, R. M.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Colling, P.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dale, Y.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donegan, M. M.

T. B. Pittman, M. M. Donegan, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, J. D. Franson, P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0303113, March 18, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0303113.

Dowling, J. P.

T. B. Pittman, M. M. Donegan, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, J. D. Franson, P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0303113, March 18, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0303113.

Fitch, M. J.

T. B. Pittman, M. M. Donegan, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, J. D. Franson, P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0303113, March 18, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0303113.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon number resolution using a time-multiplexed single-photon director,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Franson, J. D.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon number resolution using a time-multiplexed single-photon director,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

T. B. Pittman, M. M. Donegan, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, J. D. Franson, P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0303113, March 18, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0303113.

Gol'tsman, G. N.

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. N. Gol’tsman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haderka, O.

O. Haderka, M. Hamar, and J. Peřina Jr., arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0302154, February 20, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0302154.

Hamar, M.

O. Haderka, M. Hamar, and J. Peřina Jr., arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0302154, February 20, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0302154.

Hennrich, M.

A. Kuhn, M. Hennrich, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 067901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hogue, H. H.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, W. Y.

W. Y. Hwang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, B. C.

T. B. Pittman, M. M. Donegan, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, J. D. Franson, P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0303113, March 18, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0303113.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon number resolution using a time-multiplexed single-photon director,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Kasapi, S.

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. N. Gol’tsman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiraz, A.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kok, P.

T. B. Pittman, M. M. Donegan, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, J. D. Franson, P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0303113, March 18, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0303113.

Kuhn, A.

A. Kuhn, M. Hennrich, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 067901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laflamme, R.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

T. B. Pittman, M. M. Donegan, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, J. D. Franson, P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0303113, March 18, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0303113.

Lo, W.

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. N. Gol’tsman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lütkenhaus, N.

J. Calsamiglia, S. M. Barnett, and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 65, 012312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. van Loock and N. Lütkenhaus, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0304057, April 8, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0304057.

Michler, P.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milburn, G. J.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, A. J.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pelton, M.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perina Jr., J.

O. Haderka, M. Hamar, and J. Peřina Jr., arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0302154, February 20, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0302154.

Petroff, P. M.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pittman, T. B.

T. B. Pittman, M. M. Donegan, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, J. D. Franson, P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0303113, March 18, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0303113.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon number resolution using a time-multiplexed single-photon director,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Rempe, G.

A. Kuhn, M. Hennrich, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 067901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Romani, R. W.

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Santori, C.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sliwa, C.

C. Śliwa and K. Banaszek, Phys. Rev. A 67, 030101(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. N. Gol’tsman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, G.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somani, S.

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. N. Gol’tsman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, S.

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Loock, P.

P. van Loock and N. Lütkenhaus, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0304057, April 8, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0304057.

Walmsley, I. A.

Wilsher, K.

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. N. Gol’tsman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Kim, S. Takeuchi, Y. Yamamoto, and H. H. Hogue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 902 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Cabrera, R. M. Clarke, P. Colling, A. J. Miller, S. Nam, and R. W. Romani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

S. Somani, S. Kasapi, K. Wilsher, W. Lo, R. Sobolewski, and G. N. Gol’tsman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19, 2766 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, Nature 409, 46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

K. Banaszek, Phys. Rev. A 57, 5013 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon number resolution using a time-multiplexed single-photon director,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

C. Śliwa and K. Banaszek, Phys. Rev. A 67, 030101(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Calsamiglia, S. M. Barnett, and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 65, 012312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

W. Y. Hwang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kuhn, M. Hennrich, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 067901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, Science 290, 2282 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

T. B. Pittman, M. M. Donegan, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, J. D. Franson, P. Kok, H. Lee, and J. P. Dowling, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0303113, March 18, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0303113.

P. van Loock and N. Lütkenhaus, arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0304057, April 8, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0304057.

O. Haderka, M. Hamar, and J. Peřina Jr., arXiv.org e-Print archive, quant-ph/0302154, February 20, 2003, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0302154.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic setup of the detector. 50/50, symmetric fiber couplers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photon number statistics reconstructed by direct inversion of the measured data (see insets) from the fiber-based detector. The data (bars) show good agreement with the theoretical fits (dots) of a Poissonian distribution with the same mean photon number.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Conditional Probabilities p˜nkn=lk=l that l Counts are Triggered by l Photons for Poissonian Input Statistics with Average Photon Number n¯ and Detector Efficiency η

Equations (1)

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pk=npknknρn.

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