Abstract

A simple low-cost method of fabricating polymeric optical waveguides with large core sizes for plastic optical fibers is presented. The waveguides are fabricated by hot embossing with an ultraviolet-cured epoxy resin stamper. The stamper is fabricated by replication of a rectangular groove mold that is made from silicone rubber replicated from a ridged original silicon master. The master is fabricated by anisotropic etching of (110) single-crystal silicon. Optical waveguides with large core sizes of 100500 µm have been fabricated, and a low propagation loss of 0.19 dB/cm at 650 nm was achieved.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003

J. S. Kim, J. W. Kang, and J. J. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Hanemann, H. Ulrich, R. Ruprecht, and J. H. Hausselt, Proc. SPIE 3799, 225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fan and R. B. Hooker, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 466 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Rösch, W. Bernhard, R. Müller-Fiedler, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, R. Buestrich, and M. Popall, Proc. SPIE 3799, 214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Kobayashi, T. Matsuura, Y. Hida, S. Sasaki, and T. Maruno, J. LIghtwave Technol. 16, 1024 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Yoshimura, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Möhlamann, M. C. Flipse, and M. B. J. Diemeer, Electron. Lett. 32, 2009 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Th. Knoche, L. Müller, R. Klein, and A. Neyer, Electron. Lett. 32, 1284 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Bauer, H. D.

T. Paatzsch, H. D. Bauer, A. Gaudron, B. Jobst, S. Stadler, M. Popp, I. Smaglinski, and W. Ehrfeld, in Proceedings of International POF Conference 1999 (International Committee of POF, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), pp. 226–229.

Bernhard, W.

O. S. Rösch, W. Bernhard, R. Müller-Fiedler, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, R. Buestrich, and M. Popall, Proc. SPIE 3799, 214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, A.

O. S. Rösch, W. Bernhard, R. Müller-Fiedler, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, R. Buestrich, and M. Popall, Proc. SPIE 3799, 214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buestrich, R.

O. S. Rösch, W. Bernhard, R. Müller-Fiedler, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, R. Buestrich, and M. Popall, Proc. SPIE 3799, 214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dannberg, P.

O. S. Rösch, W. Bernhard, R. Müller-Fiedler, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, R. Buestrich, and M. Popall, Proc. SPIE 3799, 214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diemeer, M. B. J.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Möhlamann, M. C. Flipse, and M. B. J. Diemeer, Electron. Lett. 32, 2009 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ehrfeld, W.

T. Paatzsch, H. D. Bauer, A. Gaudron, B. Jobst, S. Stadler, M. Popp, I. Smaglinski, and W. Ehrfeld, in Proceedings of International POF Conference 1999 (International Committee of POF, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), pp. 226–229.

Fan, R. S.

Flipse, M. C.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Möhlamann, M. C. Flipse, and M. B. J. Diemeer, Electron. Lett. 32, 2009 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaudron, A.

T. Paatzsch, H. D. Bauer, A. Gaudron, B. Jobst, S. Stadler, M. Popp, I. Smaglinski, and W. Ehrfeld, in Proceedings of International POF Conference 1999 (International Committee of POF, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), pp. 226–229.

Hanemann, T.

T. Hanemann, H. Ulrich, R. Ruprecht, and J. H. Hausselt, Proc. SPIE 3799, 225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hausselt, J. H.

T. Hanemann, H. Ulrich, R. Ruprecht, and J. H. Hausselt, Proc. SPIE 3799, 225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hida, Y.

Hikita, M.

R. Yoshimura, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, R. B.

Imamura, S.

R. Yoshimura, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, M.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Möhlamann, M. C. Flipse, and M. B. J. Diemeer, Electron. Lett. 32, 2009 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jobst, B.

T. Paatzsch, H. D. Bauer, A. Gaudron, B. Jobst, S. Stadler, M. Popp, I. Smaglinski, and W. Ehrfeld, in Proceedings of International POF Conference 1999 (International Committee of POF, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), pp. 226–229.

Kang, J. W.

J. S. Kim, J. W. Kang, and J. J. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

J. S. Kim, J. W. Kang, and J. J. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, J. W. Kang, and J. J. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klein, R.

Th. Knoche, L. Müller, R. Klein, and A. Neyer, Electron. Lett. 32, 1284 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knoche, Th.

Th. Knoche, L. Müller, R. Klein, and A. Neyer, Electron. Lett. 32, 1284 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, J.

Maruno, T.

Maruno, Y. Y.

Matsuura, T.

Möhlamann, G. R.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Möhlamann, M. C. Flipse, and M. B. J. Diemeer, Electron. Lett. 32, 2009 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Müller, L.

Th. Knoche, L. Müller, R. Klein, and A. Neyer, Electron. Lett. 32, 1284 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Fiedler, R.

O. S. Rösch, W. Bernhard, R. Müller-Fiedler, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, R. Buestrich, and M. Popall, Proc. SPIE 3799, 214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neyer, A.

Th. Knoche, L. Müller, R. Klein, and A. Neyer, Electron. Lett. 32, 1284 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Paatzsch, T.

T. Paatzsch, H. D. Bauer, A. Gaudron, B. Jobst, S. Stadler, M. Popp, I. Smaglinski, and W. Ehrfeld, in Proceedings of International POF Conference 1999 (International Committee of POF, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), pp. 226–229.

Popall, M.

O. S. Rösch, W. Bernhard, R. Müller-Fiedler, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, R. Buestrich, and M. Popall, Proc. SPIE 3799, 214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popp, M.

T. Paatzsch, H. D. Bauer, A. Gaudron, B. Jobst, S. Stadler, M. Popp, I. Smaglinski, and W. Ehrfeld, in Proceedings of International POF Conference 1999 (International Committee of POF, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), pp. 226–229.

Pun, E. Y. B.

W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rösch, O. S.

O. S. Rösch, W. Bernhard, R. Müller-Fiedler, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, R. Buestrich, and M. Popall, Proc. SPIE 3799, 214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruprecht, R.

T. Hanemann, H. Ulrich, R. Ruprecht, and J. H. Hausselt, Proc. SPIE 3799, 225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, S.

Smaglinski, I.

T. Paatzsch, H. D. Bauer, A. Gaudron, B. Jobst, S. Stadler, M. Popp, I. Smaglinski, and W. Ehrfeld, in Proceedings of International POF Conference 1999 (International Committee of POF, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), pp. 226–229.

Stadler, S.

T. Paatzsch, H. D. Bauer, A. Gaudron, B. Jobst, S. Stadler, M. Popp, I. Smaglinski, and W. Ehrfeld, in Proceedings of International POF Conference 1999 (International Committee of POF, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), pp. 226–229.

Stegeman, G. I.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Möhlamann, M. C. Flipse, and M. B. J. Diemeer, Electron. Lett. 32, 2009 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tamamura, T.

Tanokura, Y.

Y. Tanokura, Nikkei Electronics Business Publ. 811 (Nikkei Business Publications, Tokyo, 2001), p. 29.

Tomaru, S.

R. Yoshimura, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, H.

T. Hanemann, H. Ulrich, R. Ruprecht, and J. H. Hausselt, Proc. SPIE 3799, 225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. H.

W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, R.

R. Yoshimura, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. H. Wong and E. Y. B. Pun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Möhlamann, M. C. Flipse, and M. B. J. Diemeer, Electron. Lett. 32, 2009 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Th. Knoche, L. Müller, R. Klein, and A. Neyer, Electron. Lett. 32, 1284 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

R. Yoshimura, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, and S. Imamura, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3657 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, J. W. Kang, and J. J. Kim, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1277 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nikkei Electronics Business Publ. 811

Y. Tanokura, Nikkei Electronics Business Publ. 811 (Nikkei Business Publications, Tokyo, 2001), p. 29.

Proc. SPIE

O. S. Rösch, W. Bernhard, R. Müller-Fiedler, P. Dannberg, A. Bräuer, R. Buestrich, and M. Popall, Proc. SPIE 3799, 214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Hanemann, H. Ulrich, R. Ruprecht, and J. H. Hausselt, Proc. SPIE 3799, 225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Paatzsch, H. D. Bauer, A. Gaudron, B. Jobst, S. Stadler, M. Popp, I. Smaglinski, and W. Ehrfeld, in Proceedings of International POF Conference 1999 (International Committee of POF, Yokohama, Japan, 1999), pp. 226–229.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Steps in the fabrication of polymeric optical waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning-electron microscope images of forms fabricated by method 2: (a) original silicon master, (b) silicone rubber mold, (c) UV-cured resin stamper, (d) undercladding.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of (a) the cross section and (b) the NFP of a polymeric optical waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Insertion loss as a function of waveguide length at 650 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Surface Roughness (Ra)

Metrics