Abstract

I demonstrate high-resolution polarization holographic recording with evanescent waves in a thin film of an azobenzene polyester deposited directly on the hypotenuse of a highly refractive prism. A spatial frequency greater than 7000 lines/mm and diffraction efficiency greater than 1% have been achieved. It was found that diffraction efficiency increases in the dark after the writing beams have been switched off. The biphotonic effect found in other azobenzene polymers, which converts cis states of the azobenzene to trans states followed by an ordering process that is due to aggregation, is proposed as the reason for this increase in diffraction efficiency.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, V. Dragostinova, T. Petrova, and N. Tomova, Opt. Lett. 27, 92 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. A. Stetson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 225 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Nassenstein, Optik 29, 597 (1969).
  5. H. Nassenstein, Optik 30, 44 (1969).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Sainov, A. Espanet, C. Ecoffet, and D.-J. Lougnot, J. Opt. A 5, 142 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Sainov, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, and E. Ivakin, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 155 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Phys. 2, 177 (1999).
  10. L. L. Nedelchev, A. Matharu, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Appl. Opt. 42, 5918 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Gibson and J. Frejlich, Appl. Opt. 23, 1904 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, and F. Andruzzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1041 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, and H. W. Siesler, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Bach, K. Anderle, T. Fuhrmann, and J. H. Wendo, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 4135 (1995).
  15. I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, “Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups—effects of irradiation with linearly polarized red light after photochemical pretreatment,” Macromolecules (to be published).

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Phys. 2, 177 (1999).

1995 (3)

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, and H. W. Siesler, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Bach, K. Anderle, T. Fuhrmann, and J. H. Wendo, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 4135 (1995).

1993 (1)

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, and F. Andruzzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1041 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Sainov, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, and E. Ivakin, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 155 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1969 (2)

H. Nassenstein, Optik 29, 597 (1969).

H. Nassenstein, Optik 30, 44 (1969).

1967 (1)

K. A. Stetson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 225 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Anderle, K.

H. Bach, K. Anderle, T. Fuhrmann, and J. H. Wendo, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 4135 (1995).

Andruzzi, F.

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, and F. Andruzzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1041 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bach, H.

H. Bach, K. Anderle, T. Fuhrmann, and J. H. Wendo, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 4135 (1995).

Bryngdahl, O.

O. Bryngdahl, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1973), Vol. 11, p. 167.
[CrossRef]

Dragostinova, V.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, V. Dragostinova, T. Petrova, and N. Tomova, Opt. Lett. 27, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sainov, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, and E. Ivakin, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 155 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ecoffet, C.

S. Sainov, A. Espanet, C. Ecoffet, and D.-J. Lougnot, J. Opt. A 5, 142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Espanet, A.

S. Sainov, A. Espanet, C. Ecoffet, and D.-J. Lougnot, J. Opt. A 5, 142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frejlich, J.

Fuhrmann, T.

H. Bach, K. Anderle, T. Fuhrmann, and J. H. Wendo, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 4135 (1995).

Gibson, M.

Hoffmann, U.

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, “Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups—effects of irradiation with linearly polarized red light after photochemical pretreatment,” Macromolecules (to be published).

Holme, N. C. R.

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Phys. 2, 177 (1999).

Hvilsted, S.

L. L. Nedelchev, A. Matharu, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Appl. Opt. 42, 5918 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Phys. 2, 177 (1999).

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, and H. W. Siesler, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, and F. Andruzzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1041 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, “Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups—effects of irradiation with linearly polarized red light after photochemical pretreatment,” Macromolecules (to be published).

Ivakin, E.

S. Sainov, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, and E. Ivakin, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 155 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kulinna, C.

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lougnot, D.-J.

S. Sainov, A. Espanet, C. Ecoffet, and D.-J. Lougnot, J. Opt. A 5, 142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matharu, A.

Nassenstein, H.

H. Nassenstein, Optik 30, 44 (1969).

H. Nassenstein, Optik 29, 597 (1969).

Nedelchev, L. L.

Nikolova, L.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, V. Dragostinova, T. Petrova, and N. Tomova, Opt. Lett. 27, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Phys. 2, 177 (1999).

Petrova, T.

Ramanujam, P. S.

L. L. Nedelchev, A. Matharu, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Appl. Opt. 42, 5918 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Phys. 2, 177 (1999).

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, and H. W. Siesler, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, and F. Andruzzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1041 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rutloh, M.

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, “Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups—effects of irradiation with linearly polarized red light after photochemical pretreatment,” Macromolecules (to be published).

Sainov, S.

S. Sainov, A. Espanet, C. Ecoffet, and D.-J. Lougnot, J. Opt. A 5, 142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Sainov, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, and E. Ivakin, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 155 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Siesler, H. W.

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, and H. W. Siesler, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, “Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups—effects of irradiation with linearly polarized red light after photochemical pretreatment,” Macromolecules (to be published).

Stetson, K. A.

K. A. Stetson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 225 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Stumpe, J.

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, “Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups—effects of irradiation with linearly polarized red light after photochemical pretreatment,” Macromolecules (to be published).

Todorov, T.

Tomova, N.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, V. Dragostinova, T. Petrova, and N. Tomova, Opt. Lett. 27, 92 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sainov, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, and E. Ivakin, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 155 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wendorff, J. H.

H. Bach, K. Anderle, T. Fuhrmann, and J. H. Wendo, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 4135 (1995).

Zebger, I.

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, and H. W. Siesler, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, “Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups—effects of irradiation with linearly polarized red light after photochemical pretreatment,” Macromolecules (to be published).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, and F. Andruzzi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1041 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Stetson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 225 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Sainov, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, and E. Ivakin, J. Mod. Opt. 35, 155 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

S. Sainov, A. Espanet, C. Ecoffet, and D.-J. Lougnot, J. Opt. A 5, 142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

H. Bach, K. Anderle, T. Fuhrmann, and J. H. Wendo, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 4135 (1995).

Macromol. Rapid Commun. (1)

P. S. Ramanujam, S. Hvilsted, I. Zebger, and H. W. Siesler, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 16, 455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (2)

I. Zebger, M. Rutloh, U. Hoffmann, J. Stumpe, H. W. Siesler, and S. Hvilsted, “Photoorientation of a liquid crystalline polyester with azobenzene side groups—effects of irradiation with linearly polarized red light after photochemical pretreatment,” Macromolecules (to be published).

S. Hvilsted, F. Andruzzi, C. Kulinna, H. W. Siesler, and P. S. Ramanujam, Macromolecules 28, 2172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (2)

H. Nassenstein, Optik 29, 597 (1969).

H. Nassenstein, Optik 30, 44 (1969).

Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, Recent Res. Dev. Appl. Phys. 2, 177 (1999).

Other (1)

O. Bryngdahl, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1973), Vol. 11, p. 167.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for recording evanescent-wave polarization diffraction gratings. The GGG prism has a refractive index of 1.988 at 488 nm. PBS, polarization beam splitter; HWP, half-wave plate; QWP, quarter-wave plate; Ms, mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency at 633 nm at various polarization combinations of the write beams at 488 nm. The write laser is switched off after 7000 s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Increase in diffraction efficiency as a function of the time during which the gratings are illuminated only with a He–Ne laser beam at 633 nm.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ex=A exp-2πnszλaexpI2πxλf,
λa=λ0ns2 sin2 i-nf21/2.
λf=λ0ns sin i,
d=λf/2.
Ea=121-iexp-iδ,  Eb=121iexpiδ.
ET=EA+EB=2cosδ-sinδ,
cosδ-sinδ.

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