Abstract

We demonstrate that some neural-net image-processing operations can be realized in an all-optical manner by use of the natural diffraction property of light in conjunction with the photosensitivity and optical nonlinearities of a transparent thin film. An example of image edge enhancement is illustrated with photosensitive supranonlinear nematic liquid-crystal films.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, M. P. Dames, J. R. Collington, M. C. Parker, S. T. War, T. M. Wilkinson, and A. B. Davey, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 35 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Vorontsov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1623 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. T. S. Yu and S. Jutamulia, Optical Signal Processing, Computing, and Neural Networks (Wiley, New York, 1998).
  6. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).
  7. I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, and W. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, in Special Issue on Photorefractive Optics: Materials, Devices and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1897–1911, and references therein.
  9. I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  11. I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, M.-Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 2, 471 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, and I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 26, 1140 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, Y. Zhang, and K. Chen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Reznikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Reznikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, Opt. Express 4, 431 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Brignon, I. Bongrand, B. Loiseaux, and J. P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 22, 1855 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. U. Efron, ed., Spatial Light Modulator Technology: Materials, Devices, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995).
  19. P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996), and references therein.
  21. J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Owechko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 619 (1989), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. A. Athale, H. H. Szu, and C. B. Friedlander, Opt. Lett. 11, 482 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Sanchez, P. H. Kayoun, and J. P. Huignard, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 26 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  27. O. L. Antipov, Opt. Commun. 103, 499 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, Y. Zhang, and K. Chen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

1997 (3)

1996 (2)

R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, M. P. Dames, J. R. Collington, M. C. Parker, S. T. War, T. M. Wilkinson, and A. B. Davey, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

O. L. Antipov, Opt. Commun. 103, 499 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Y. Owechko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 619 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

F. Sanchez, P. H. Kayoun, and J. P. Huignard, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 26 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1982 (2)

J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Antipov, O. L.

O. L. Antipov, Opt. Commun. 103, 499 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

Bongrand, I.

Brignon, A.

Chen, K.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, Y. Zhang, and K. Chen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. H.

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, Opt. Express 4, 431 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, M.-Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 2, 471 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, in Special Issue on Photorefractive Optics: Materials, Devices and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1897–1911, and references therein.

Chen, Z.

Collington, J. R.

R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, M. P. Dames, J. R. Collington, M. C. Parker, S. T. War, T. M. Wilkinson, and A. B. Davey, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, M. P. Dames, J. R. Collington, M. C. Parker, S. T. War, T. M. Wilkinson, and A. B. Davey, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dames, M. P.

R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, M. P. Dames, J. R. Collington, M. C. Parker, S. T. War, T. M. Wilkinson, and A. B. Davey, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davey, A. B.

R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, M. P. Dames, J. R. Collington, M. C. Parker, S. T. War, T. M. Wilkinson, and A. B. Davey, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, Y. Zhang, and K. Chen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, Y. Zhang, and K. Chen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Fischer, B.

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Francescangeli, O.

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Reznikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Reznikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, in Special Issue on Photorefractive Optics: Materials, Devices and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1897–1911, and references therein.

Friedlander, C. B.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996), and references therein.

Guenther, B. D.

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, and W. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, M.-Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 2, 471 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, in Special Issue on Photorefractive Optics: Materials, Devices and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1897–1911, and references therein.

Gunter, P.

P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

A. Brignon, I. Bongrand, B. Loiseaux, and J. P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 22, 1855 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. H. Kayoun, and J. P. Huignard, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 26 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Johnson, K. M.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jutamulia, S.

F. T. S. Yu and S. Jutamulia, Optical Signal Processing, Computing, and Neural Networks (Wiley, New York, 1998).

Kayoun, P. H.

F. Sanchez, P. H. Kayoun, and J. P. Huignard, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 26 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, Y. Zhang, and K. Chen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shih, A. Shishido, and I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 26, 1140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, Opt. Express 4, 431 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, and W. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, M.-Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 2, 471 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, in Special Issue on Photorefractive Optics: Materials, Devices and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1897–1911, and references therein.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Loiseaux, B.

Lucchetti, L.

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, in Special Issue on Photorefractive Optics: Materials, Devices and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1897–1911, and references therein.

McKnight, D. J.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mears, R. J.

R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, M. P. Dames, J. R. Collington, M. C. Parker, S. T. War, T. M. Wilkinson, and A. B. Davey, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Owechko, Y.

Y. Owechko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 619 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Parker, M. C.

R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, M. P. Dames, J. R. Collington, M. C. Parker, S. T. War, T. M. Wilkinson, and A. B. Davey, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Y.

S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Reznikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Reznikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, F.

F. Sanchez, P. H. Kayoun, and J. P. Huignard, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 26 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M. Y.

Shih, M.-Y.

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, M.-Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 2, 471 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, in Special Issue on Photorefractive Optics: Materials, Devices and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1897–1911, and references therein.

Shishido, A.

Simoni, F.

S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Reznikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Reznikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, in Special Issue on Photorefractive Optics: Materials, Devices and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1897–1911, and references therein.

Slussarenko, S.

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, and W. V. Wood, Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Reznikov, and S. Slussarenko, Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Reznikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, in Special Issue on Photorefractive Optics: Materials, Devices and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1897–1911, and references therein.

Solymar, L.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996), and references therein.

Szu, H. H.

Underwood, I.

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vorontsov, M. A.

War, S. T.

R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, M. P. Dames, J. R. Collington, M. C. Parker, S. T. War, T. M. Wilkinson, and A. B. Davey, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996), and references therein.

White, J. O.

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. M.

R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, M. P. Dames, J. R. Collington, M. C. Parker, S. T. War, T. M. Wilkinson, and A. B. Davey, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. V.

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, Opt. Express 4, 431 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, M.-Y. Shih, P. H. Chen, Z. Chen, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 2, 471 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, in Special Issue on Photorefractive Optics: Materials, Devices and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1897–1911, and references therein.

Wood, W. V.

Yariv, A.

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

F. T. S. Yu and S. Jutamulia, Optical Signal Processing, Computing, and Neural Networks (Wiley, New York, 1998).

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, Y. Zhang, and K. Chen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, F. Simoni, and Y. Reznikov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3613 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. M. Johnson, D. J. McKnight, and I. Underwood, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 699 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Owechko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 619 (1989), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. J. Mears, W. A. Crossland, M. P. Dames, J. R. Collington, M. C. Parker, S. T. War, T. M. Wilkinson, and A. B. Davey, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 35 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy and D. A. B. Miller, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Sanchez, P. H. Kayoun, and J. P. Huignard, J. Appl. Phys. 64, 26 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, A. Diaz, Y. Zhang, and K. Chen, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 375, 33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. L. Antipov, Opt. Commun. 103, 499 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

I. C. Khoo, M.-Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, in Special Issue on Photorefractive Optics: Materials, Devices and Applications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 1897–1911, and references therein.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).

F. T. S. Yu and S. Jutamulia, Optical Signal Processing, Computing, and Neural Networks (Wiley, New York, 1998).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

U. Efron, ed., Spatial Light Modulator Technology: Materials, Devices, and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995).

P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon, Oxford, 1996), and references therein.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coordinates for the Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction integral.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for edge enhancement with photosensitive transparent nonlinear optical film. Inset, planar twist alignment of the Methyl-Red-doped nematic liquid-crystal film. PNLC, planar nematic liquid crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation results: (a) input object, (b) intensity distribution at the Fourier plane, (c) edge-enhanced output image (graininess caused by the number of image points used in the simulation).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results: (a) input binary object, (b) output image with edge enhancement, (c) output image with edge enhancement with a high-pass filter at the Fourier plane (as in Ref. 10).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ux=-ikI4πAuincrexpikssdS.
ux=-ikI4πAuincrτrexpikssdS.
τρτρexpikntexp-ikρ22f.
uincr=SHAAr0expikrrd2r0.
ux=-iλSAHAexpikrrαρexp-ikρ22f×expikssd2ρd2r0=SAHαρexp-ikρ22fexpiks+rsrd2ρ×Ar0d2r0.
Ulkn+1=fi=1Nj=1NTlkijUijn.
En1,n2=k1=-k2=-Ek1,k2hn1-k1,n2-k2=k1=-k2=-hk1,k2En1-k1,n2-k2,
, Hαρexp-ikρ22fexpiks+rsrTlkji, Ar0Uijn.

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