Abstract

The wings of the morpho butterfly demonstrate an iridescent blue color over wide viewing angles. The mechanism that generates this blue color is studied. Optical and transmission electron microscopy of the butterfly wings reveal a complex wing structure with as many as 24 layers with periodic structures. The color generation is caused by interference of the multilayer structure as well as diffraction. It is possible to specially design grating structures so that a specific blue color can be generated and observed over wider angles. To demonstrate the grating concept, complex multigratings are designed and fabricated with electron-beam lithography. The light-diffraction properties of these gratings are presented.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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2003

2002

C. Lawrence, P. Vukusic, and R. Sambles, Appl. Opt. 41, 437 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and K. Kawagoe, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 269, 1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Argoitia and M. Witzman, Vac. Technol. Coat. 10, 39 (2002).

2001

2000

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and H. Ghiradella, Photonics Sci. News 6, 61 (2000).

1999

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Srinivasarao, Chem. Rev. 99, 1935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Brink and M. E. Lee, Appl. Opt. 38, 5282 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. J. Brink and M. E. Lee, Appl. Opt. 37, 4213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Tada, S. E. Mann, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, Appl. Opt. 37, 87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

M. C. Gupta and S. T. Peng, Opt. Lett. 16, 1303 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Argoitia, A.

A. Argoitia and M. Witzman, Vac. Technol. Coat. 10, 39 (2002).

Brink, D. J.

Bugayev, A. A.

Droll, F. J.

F. J. Droll, “Pigments offer a new family of colorants based on diffractive effects” (Business News Publishing Company, Troy, Mich., April 26, 2002), http://www.pcimag.com/CDA/ArticleInformation/coverstory/BNPCoverStoryItem/0,1848,76195, 00.html.

Ghiradella, H.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and H. Ghiradella, Photonics Sci. News 6, 61 (2000).

Gupta, M. C.

Irick, S.

S. Irick, QuickCheck calculators, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., available at http://xraysweb.lbl.gov/SCIrick/QuickCheck/Calculators.html.

Kawagoe, K.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and K. Kawagoe, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 269, 1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, S.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and K. Kawagoe, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 269, 1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, C.

Lawrence, C. R.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. E.

Mann, S. E.

H. Tada, S. E. Mann, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, Appl. Opt. 37, 87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miaoulis, I. N.

H. Tada, S. E. Mann, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, Appl. Opt. 37, 87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Wong and I. N. Miaoulis, in Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology, L. J. Hayes, ed. (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 5.

Peng, S. T.

Sambles, J. R.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and H. Ghiradella, Photonics Sci. News 6, 61 (2000).

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, R.

Srinivasarao, M.

M. Srinivasarao, Chem. Rev. 99, 1935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tada, H.

H. Tada, S. E. Mann, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, Appl. Opt. 37, 87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vukusic, P.

C. Lawrence, P. Vukusic, and R. Sambles, Appl. Opt. 41, 437 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic, R. Sambles, C. Lawrence, and G. Wakely, Appl. Opt. 40, 1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and H. Ghiradella, Photonics Sci. News 6, 61 (2000).

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wakely, G.

Witzman, M.

A. Argoitia and M. Witzman, Vac. Technol. Coat. 10, 39 (2002).

Wong, P. Y.

H. Tada, S. E. Mann, I. N. Miaoulis, and P. Y. Wong, Appl. Opt. 37, 87 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Wong and I. N. Miaoulis, in Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology, L. J. Hayes, ed. (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 5.

Wootton, R. J.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, S.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and K. Kawagoe, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 269, 1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Rev.

M. Srinivasarao, Chem. Rev. 99, 1935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Photonics Sci. News

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and H. Ghiradella, Photonics Sci. News 6, 61 (2000).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshioka, and K. Kawagoe, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 269, 1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vac. Technol. Coat.

A. Argoitia and M. Witzman, Vac. Technol. Coat. 10, 39 (2002).

Other

F. J. Droll, “Pigments offer a new family of colorants based on diffractive effects” (Business News Publishing Company, Troy, Mich., April 26, 2002), http://www.pcimag.com/CDA/ArticleInformation/coverstory/BNPCoverStoryItem/0,1848,76195, 00.html.

S. Irick, QuickCheck calculators, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., available at http://xraysweb.lbl.gov/SCIrick/QuickCheck/Calculators.html.

P. Y. Wong and I. N. Miaoulis, in Advances in Heat and Mass Transfer in Biotechnology, L. J. Hayes, ed. (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1995), p. 5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TEM image of the ridges and layer structures for a morpho butterfly wing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Orientation and dimensions of hexagonal patterns in the multigrating structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Atomic force microscope image of the electron-beam-fabricated multigrating structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction pattern at normal incidence. (a) Center area. (b) Center area and part of the side area.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction pattern of the central region at 150 cm from the grating.

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