Abstract

We report on what is to our knowledge the first fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings by UV femtosecond radiation. The Bragg gratings, with photoinduced refractive-index modulation up to 1.92×10-3 in H2-loaded SMF-28 and up to 1.05×10-3 in Nufern GF1 fibers, were written by high-intensity (3177GW/cm2) femtosecond pulses at 264 nm. The dependence of the refractive-index modulation on intensity at equal fluences points to a two-photon absorption mechanism for grating inscription.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).
  2. A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1999).
  3. K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, J. Zhang, and R. Tam, Opt. Lett. 26, 771 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kasansky, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 24, 646 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. A. Zagorul'ko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Vorob'ev, A. V. Smirnov, M. Y. Shchelev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Quantum Electron. 31, 999 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, J. Unruh, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD30.
  8. A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Appl. Opt. 41, 4365 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, D. N. Nikogosyan, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1114 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Ruth, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, Electron. Lett. 38, 269 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Twinkle, a highly integrated picosecond–femtosecond chirped-pulse amplification Nd:glass laser system, http://www.lightcon.com.
  13. E. K. Illy H. J. Booth, in Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Optical Communications (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2002), paper M602.
  14. P. L. Swart, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and V. V. Spirin, Electron. Lett. 38, 1508 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, and R. Tam, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BThA5.

2002

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Appl. Opt. 41, 4365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, D. N. Nikogosyan, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Ruth, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, Electron. Lett. 38, 269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Illy H. J. Booth, in Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Optical Communications (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2002), paper M602.

P. L. Swart, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and V. V. Spirin, Electron. Lett. 38, 1508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, J. Zhang, and R. Tam, Opt. Lett. 26, 771 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Zagorul'ko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Vorob'ev, A. V. Smirnov, M. Y. Shchelev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Quantum Electron. 31, 999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kasansky, and K. Hirao, Opt. Lett. 24, 646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1999).

Booth, H. J.

E. K. Illy H. J. Booth, in Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Optical Communications (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2002), paper M602.

Chen, K. P.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, J. Zhang, and R. Tam, Opt. Lett. 26, 771 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, and R. Tam, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BThA5.

Chtcherbakov, A. A.

P. L. Swart, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and V. V. Spirin, Electron. Lett. 38, 1508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

K. A. Zagorul'ko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Vorob'ev, A. V. Smirnov, M. Y. Shchelev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Quantum Electron. 31, 999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, J. Unruh, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD30.

Dragomir, A.

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, D. N. Nikogosyan, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Ruth, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, Electron. Lett. 38, 269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Appl. Opt. 41, 4365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, J. Unruh, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD30.

Herman, P. R.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, J. Zhang, and R. Tam, Opt. Lett. 26, 771 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, and R. Tam, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BThA5.

Hirao, K.

Illy, E. K.

E. K. Illy H. J. Booth, in Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Optical Communications (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2002), paper M602.

Kalli, K.

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1999).

Kasansky, P. G.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Kazansky, P. G.

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, D. N. Nikogosyan, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

Kryukov, P. G.

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Ruth, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, Electron. Lett. 38, 269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Zagorul'ko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Vorob'ev, A. V. Smirnov, M. Y. Shchelev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Quantum Electron. 31, 999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Larionov, Y. V.

K. A. Zagorul'ko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Vorob'ev, A. V. Smirnov, M. Y. Shchelev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Quantum Electron. 31, 999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, J. Unruh, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD30.

McInerney, J. G.

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, D. N. Nikogosyan, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Appl. Opt. 41, 4365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, J. Unruh, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD30.

Mitsuyu, T.

Nikogosyan, D. N.

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, D. N. Nikogosyan, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Ruth, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, Electron. Lett. 38, 269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Appl. Opt. 41, 4365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nouchi, K.

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1999).

Prokhorov, A. M.

K. A. Zagorul'ko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Vorob'ev, A. V. Smirnov, M. Y. Shchelev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Quantum Electron. 31, 999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ruth, A. A.

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Ruth, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, Electron. Lett. 38, 269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rybaltovskii, A. A.

K. A. Zagorul'ko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Vorob'ev, A. V. Smirnov, M. Y. Shchelev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Quantum Electron. 31, 999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shchelev, M. Y.

K. A. Zagorul'ko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Vorob'ev, A. V. Smirnov, M. Y. Shchelev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Quantum Electron. 31, 999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shlyagin, M. G.

P. L. Swart, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and V. V. Spirin, Electron. Lett. 38, 1508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smelser, C. W.

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, J. Unruh, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD30.

Smirnov, A. V.

K. A. Zagorul'ko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Vorob'ev, A. V. Smirnov, M. Y. Shchelev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Quantum Electron. 31, 999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spirin, V. V.

P. L. Swart, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and V. V. Spirin, Electron. Lett. 38, 1508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

P. L. Swart, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and V. V. Spirin, Electron. Lett. 38, 1508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tam, R.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, J. Zhang, and R. Tam, Opt. Lett. 26, 771 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, and R. Tam, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BThA5.

Unruh, J.

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, J. Unruh, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD30.

Vorob'ev, N. S.

K. A. Zagorul'ko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Vorob'ev, A. V. Smirnov, M. Y. Shchelev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Quantum Electron. 31, 999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. B.

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, J. Unruh, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD30.

Watanabe, M.

Zagorulko, K.

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zagorulko, K. A.

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Ruth, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, Electron. Lett. 38, 269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zagorul'ko, K. A.

K. A. Zagorul'ko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Vorob'ev, A. V. Smirnov, M. Y. Shchelev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Quantum Electron. 31, 999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, J. Zhang, and R. Tam, Opt. Lett. 26, 771 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Dragomir, J. G. McInerney, D. N. Nikogosyan, and P. G. Kazansky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1114 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. A. Ruth, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, Electron. Lett. 38, 269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Swart, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and V. V. Spirin, Electron. Lett. 38, 1508 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, R. Tam, and J. Zhang, Electron. Lett. 36, 2000 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series

K. P. Chen, P. R. Herman, and R. Tam, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 61 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper BThA5.

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, J. Unruh, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), postdeadline paper PD30.

Proc. SPIE

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. Zagorulko, and P. G. Kryukov, Proc. SPIE 4876, 313 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

K. A. Zagorul'ko, P. G. Kryukov, Y. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovskii, E. M. Dianov, N. S. Vorob'ev, A. V. Smirnov, M. Y. Shchelev, and A. M. Prokhorov, Quantum Electron. 31, 999 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1999).

Twinkle, a highly integrated picosecond–femtosecond chirped-pulse amplification Nd:glass laser system, http://www.lightcon.com.

E. K. Illy H. J. Booth, in Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Optical Communications (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2002), paper M602.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectra of Bragg gratings recorded in (a), (b) H2-loaded SMF-28 and (c) H2-free Nufern GF1 fibers with high-intensity 264-nm femtosecond pulses. The irradiation intensities and total incident fluences were (a) 47 GW/cm2 and 0.68 kJ/cm2, (b) 31 GW/cm2 and 0.63 kJ/cm2, and (c) 77 GW/cm2 and 4.7 kJ/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of refractive-index changes on total incident irradiation fluence for high-intensity femtosecond UV irradiation of (a) H2-loaded SMF-28 and (b) H2-free Nufern GF1 fibers. The accuracy of the calculated refractive-index change is better than 2%.

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