Abstract

A signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analysis is presented for optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals in which time-domain performance is compared with that of the spectral domain. A significant SNR gain of several hundredfold is found for acquisition in the spectral domain. The SNR benefit is demonstrated experimentally in a hybrid time-domain–spectral-domain OCT system.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 31, 21 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (5)

1998 (1)

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 31, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 80, 894 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baney, D. M.

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

de Boer, J. F.

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, A. D.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haskell, R. C.

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 31, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoeling, B. M.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, E.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 31, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 80, 894 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Myers, W. R.

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Petersen, D. C.

Pierce, M. C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L. F.

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorin, W. V.

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tripathi, R.

Ungersma, S. E.

Wang, R. Y.

Williams, M. E.

Wojtkowski, M.

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 80, 894 (1962).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 140 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 31, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. Phys. Soc. London (1)

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 80, 894 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Leitgeb, L. F. Schmetterer, M. Wojtkowski, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, Proc. SPIE 4619, 16 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, and C. A. Puliafito, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup used to demonstrate SNR improvement by SD OCT. The reference arm was scanned with a rapid scanning optical delay line (RSOD). Detection arm light was dispersed by a grating and focused onto a four-element array detector. Individual signals from the array detector were amplified by transimpedance amplifiers, digitized by a four-channel 2.5-MHz/channel analog-to-digital board, and stored in computer memory.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power densities for four detectors. The shot-noise level for each detector is significantly lower than for the coherent sum of the four detector channels. Bars at the top of the image indicate the signal passbands that were applied to the individual channels and the coherently summed channel to generate Fig. 3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coherence envelope for the coherently summed channels, and the coherently summed channels after bandpass filtering of each channel. The noise level for the bandpass-filtered sum of channels is lower by a factor of 2.5, demonstrating the SNR gain that can be achieved by spectral dispersion of the signal in the detection arm over several individual detectors.

Equations (10)

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Ssignal=2η2e2PrefPsample/Eν2A2,
Pref,sample=Sref,sampleωdω.
Ssignal=2η2e2αSωdω2/Eν2.
Nnoisef=4kTRfb+2ηe2PrefEν+2ηePrefEν2τcoh A2/Hz,
SNR1=ηα-Δω/2Δω/2Sωdω2EνBW-Δω/2Δω/2Sωdω,
SNR2=ηα-Δω/20Sωdω+0Δω/2Sωdω2Eν0.5 BW-Δω/20Sωdω+0.5 BW0Δω/2Sωdω=2SNR1,
Nnoise=2ηe2PrefEνBWM A2.
SsignalNnoise=ηPsampleMEνBW.
SsignalNnoise=ηPsampleτiEν.
If=Itexp2iπftdt,

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