Abstract

A laser terahertz-emission microscope (LTEM) system is proposed and developed for inspecting electrical faults in integrated circuits (IC). We test a commercial operational amplifier while the system is operating. Two-dimensional terahertz-emission images of the IC chip are clearly observed while the chip is scanned with a femtosecond laser. When one of the interconnection lines is cut, the damaged chip has a LTEM image different from that of normal chips. The results indicate that the LTEM system is a potential tool for IC inspection.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For reviews on recent progress in terahertz technology, see, for example, B. Ferguson X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mat. 1, 26 (2002) D. Mittleman, ed., Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntoshi, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, R. Blundell, IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 245 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Kawabe and the Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array working group, in Proceedings of the IEEE Seventh International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 102.
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    [CrossRef]
  8. B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, Opt. Lett. 20, 1716 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 689 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Shikii, T. Kondo, M. Yamashita, M. Tonouchi, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1317 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Tonouchi, M. Yamashita, and M. Hangyo, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7366 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Tonouchi, M. Tani, Z. Wang, K. Sakai, S. Tomozawa, M. Hangyo, Y. Murakami, and S. Nakashima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2624 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Beauchêne, D. Lewis, F. Beaudoin, V. Pouget, R. Desplats, P. Fouillat, P. Perdu, M. Bafleur, and D. Tremouilles, Microelectron. Reliab. 43, 439 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Nikawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 746 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Information on the LM301AH operational amplifier, including a schematic of pin connections, is available at http://www.national.com.

2003 (1)

T. Beauchêne, D. Lewis, F. Beaudoin, V. Pouget, R. Desplats, P. Fouillat, P. Perdu, M. Bafleur, and D. Tremouilles, Microelectron. Reliab. 43, 439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

M. Tonouchi, M. Yamashita, and M. Hangyo, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntoshi, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, R. Blundell, IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Shikii, T. Kondo, M. Yamashita, M. Tonouchi, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 689 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, M. Tani, Z. Wang, K. Sakai, S. Tomozawa, M. Hangyo, Y. Murakami, and S. Nakashima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Brener, D. Dykaar, A. Frommer, L. N. Pfeiffer, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, K. West, and M. C. Nuss, Opt. Lett. 21, 1924 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1990 (2)

1985 (1)

Abbott, D.

Auston, D. H.

Bafleur, M.

T. Beauchêne, D. Lewis, F. Beaudoin, V. Pouget, R. Desplats, P. Fouillat, P. Perdu, M. Bafleur, and D. Tremouilles, Microelectron. Reliab. 43, 439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beauchêne, T.

T. Beauchêne, D. Lewis, F. Beaudoin, V. Pouget, R. Desplats, P. Fouillat, P. Perdu, M. Bafleur, and D. Tremouilles, Microelectron. Reliab. 43, 439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, F.

T. Beauchêne, D. Lewis, F. Beaudoin, V. Pouget, R. Desplats, P. Fouillat, P. Perdu, M. Bafleur, and D. Tremouilles, Microelectron. Reliab. 43, 439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blundell, R.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntoshi, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, R. Blundell, IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

Calawa, S. D.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntoshi, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, R. Blundell, IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. P.

Desplats, R.

T. Beauchêne, D. Lewis, F. Beaudoin, V. Pouget, R. Desplats, P. Fouillat, P. Perdu, M. Bafleur, and D. Tremouilles, Microelectron. Reliab. 43, 439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntoshi, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, R. Blundell, IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duffy, S. M.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntoshi, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, R. Blundell, IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dykaar, D.

Fattinger, Ch.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 27, 1312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

For reviews on recent progress in terahertz technology, see, for example, B. Ferguson X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mat. 1, 26 (2002) D. Mittleman, ed., Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Fouillat, P.

T. Beauchêne, D. Lewis, F. Beaudoin, V. Pouget, R. Desplats, P. Fouillat, P. Perdu, M. Bafleur, and D. Tremouilles, Microelectron. Reliab. 43, 439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frommer, A.

Gray, D.

Grischkowsky, D.

Hangyo, M.

M. Tonouchi, M. Yamashita, and M. Hangyo, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Shikii, T. Kondo, M. Yamashita, M. Tonouchi, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, M. Tani, Z. Wang, K. Sakai, S. Tomozawa, M. Hangyo, Y. Murakami, and S. Nakashima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 689 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawabe, R.

R. Kawabe and the Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array working group, in Proceedings of the IEEE Seventh International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 102.

Keiding, S. R.

Kimberk, R.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntoshi, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, R. Blundell, IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

S. Shikii, T. Kondo, M. Yamashita, M. Tonouchi, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, D.

T. Beauchêne, D. Lewis, F. Beaudoin, V. Pouget, R. Desplats, P. Fouillat, P. Perdu, M. Bafleur, and D. Tremouilles, Microelectron. Reliab. 43, 439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lopata, J.

McIntoshi, K. A.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntoshi, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, R. Blundell, IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 689 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

M. Tonouchi, M. Tani, Z. Wang, K. Sakai, S. Tomozawa, M. Hangyo, Y. Murakami, and S. Nakashima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, S.

M. Tonouchi, M. Tani, Z. Wang, K. Sakai, S. Tomozawa, M. Hangyo, Y. Murakami, and S. Nakashima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nikawa, K.

K. Nikawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 746 (2002).

Nuss, M. C.

Perdu, P.

T. Beauchêne, D. Lewis, F. Beaudoin, V. Pouget, R. Desplats, P. Fouillat, P. Perdu, M. Bafleur, and D. Tremouilles, Microelectron. Reliab. 43, 439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

Pouget, V.

T. Beauchêne, D. Lewis, F. Beaudoin, V. Pouget, R. Desplats, P. Fouillat, P. Perdu, M. Bafleur, and D. Tremouilles, Microelectron. Reliab. 43, 439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

M. Tonouchi, M. Tani, Z. Wang, K. Sakai, S. Tomozawa, M. Hangyo, Y. Murakami, and S. Nakashima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shikii, S.

S. Shikii, T. Kondo, M. Yamashita, M. Tonouchi, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

M. Tonouchi, M. Tani, Z. Wang, K. Sakai, S. Tomozawa, M. Hangyo, Y. Murakami, and S. Nakashima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tomozawa, S.

M. Tonouchi, M. Tani, Z. Wang, K. Sakai, S. Tomozawa, M. Hangyo, Y. Murakami, and S. Nakashima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tong, C.-Y. E.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntoshi, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, R. Blundell, IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, M. Yamashita, and M. Hangyo, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Shikii, T. Kondo, M. Yamashita, M. Tonouchi, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, M. Tani, Z. Wang, K. Sakai, S. Tomozawa, M. Hangyo, Y. Murakami, and S. Nakashima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tremouilles, D.

T. Beauchêne, D. Lewis, F. Beaudoin, V. Pouget, R. Desplats, P. Fouillat, P. Perdu, M. Bafleur, and D. Tremouilles, Microelectron. Reliab. 43, 439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntoshi, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, R. Blundell, IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Wang, Z.

M. Tonouchi, M. Tani, Z. Wang, K. Sakai, S. Tomozawa, M. Hangyo, Y. Murakami, and S. Nakashima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

West, K.

Wynn, J.

Yamashita, M.

M. Tonouchi, M. Yamashita, and M. Hangyo, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Shikii, T. Kondo, M. Yamashita, M. Tonouchi, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 27, 1312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

For reviews on recent progress in terahertz technology, see, for example, B. Ferguson X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mat. 1, 26 (2002) D. Mittleman, ed., Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Shikii, T. Kondo, M. Yamashita, M. Tonouchi, and M. Hangyo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky and S. R. Keiding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1055 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 689 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. (1)

S. Verghese, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntoshi, S. M. Duffy, S. D. Calawa, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Kimberk, R. Blundell, IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 9, 245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

K. Nikawa, IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 746 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Tonouchi, M. Yamashita, and M. Hangyo, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7366 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Tonouchi, M. Tani, Z. Wang, K. Sakai, S. Tomozawa, M. Hangyo, Y. Murakami, and S. Nakashima, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2624 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Reliab. (1)

T. Beauchêne, D. Lewis, F. Beaudoin, V. Pouget, R. Desplats, P. Fouillat, P. Perdu, M. Bafleur, and D. Tremouilles, Microelectron. Reliab. 43, 439 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mat. (1)

For reviews on recent progress in terahertz technology, see, for example, B. Ferguson X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Mat. 1, 26 (2002) D. Mittleman, ed., Sensing with Terahertz Radiation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

R. Kawabe and the Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array working group, in Proceedings of the IEEE Seventh International Conference on Terahertz Electronics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), p. 102.

Information on the LM301AH operational amplifier, including a schematic of pin connections, is available at http://www.national.com.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the backscattered-type LTEM system. Terahertz waves are transmitted in the gray region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LTEM images of the biased IC chip superimposed on optical images. Green circles indicate the terminals of the IC chip. The red and blue regions indicate an electric field with positive and negative directions along the x axis, respectively. The color scales are normalized for the maximum value of the detected signal. The images were measured by modulating the (a) pump laser and (b) voltage signal applied to Vin.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical time domain waveforms of terahertz emission from the biased IC chip. The solid and dashed curves indicate the waves emitted from different areas of the IC chip, the red and blue regions near terminal Vout in Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LTEM images of a (a) normal and (b) broken IC chip. The color scales are normalized with the maximum value. A modulated voltage signal was applied between two terminals. Inset, magnified photograph of the area within the broken line.

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