Abstract

We demonstrate a three-dimensional (3-D) distributed refractometer that measures refractive index in a small volume. The sensor is based on an evanescent-wave fiber Bragg grating that is interrogated by low-coherence spectral interferometry. The measurement can be performed on a short time scale without the need for a mechanical scan. The new sensor was used to simultaneously measure glucose concentration in several droplets along a single sensor and to interrogate the time-dependent evaporation process of a water droplet. The new measurement technique might enable novel 3-D distributed sensors to be developed and multiple discrete measurements to be made in a small volume.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.
  2. T. O’Brien, L. H. Johnson III, J. L. Aldrich, S. G. Allen, L. T. Liang, A. L. Plummer, S. J. Krak, and A. A. Bioarski, Biosens. Bioelectron. 14, 815 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Brynda, M. Houska, A. Brandenburg, and A. Wikerstal, Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 665 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Slavik, J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, and E. Brynda, Sens. Actuators B 74, 106 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Allsop, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 191, 181 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Goloborodko, S. Keren, A. Rosenthal, B. Levit, and M. Horowitz, Appl. Opt. 42, 2284 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2076 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Keren and M. Horowitz, Opt. Lett. 26, 328 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. G. Hiedeman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 12, 205 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 22, 799 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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2003

2002

E. Brynda, M. Houska, A. Brandenburg, and A. Wikerstal, Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 665 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

R. Slavik, J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, and E. Brynda, Sens. Actuators B 74, 106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 191, 181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Keren and M. Horowitz, Opt. Lett. 26, 328 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. O’Brien, L. H. Johnson III, J. L. Aldrich, S. G. Allen, L. T. Liang, A. L. Plummer, S. J. Krak, and A. A. Bioarski, Biosens. Bioelectron. 14, 815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

S. Huang, M. M. Ohn, M. Leblanc, and R. M. Measures, Smart Mater. Struct. 7, 248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, Opt. Lett. 22, 799 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. G. Hiedeman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 12, 205 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

F. A. Muhammad and G. Stewart, Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 705 (1992).

Aldrich, J. L.

T. O’Brien, L. H. Johnson III, J. L. Aldrich, S. G. Allen, L. T. Liang, A. L. Plummer, S. J. Krak, and A. A. Bioarski, Biosens. Bioelectron. 14, 815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, S. G.

T. O’Brien, L. H. Johnson III, J. L. Aldrich, S. G. Allen, L. T. Liang, A. L. Plummer, S. J. Krak, and A. A. Bioarski, Biosens. Bioelectron. 14, 815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 191, 181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, A.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, C. D.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Barad, Y.

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 191, 181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bioarski, A. A.

T. O’Brien, L. H. Johnson III, J. L. Aldrich, S. G. Allen, L. T. Liang, A. L. Plummer, S. J. Krak, and A. A. Bioarski, Biosens. Bioelectron. 14, 815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandenburg, A.

E. Brynda, M. Houska, A. Brandenburg, and A. Wikerstal, Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 665 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brynda, E.

E. Brynda, M. Houska, A. Brandenburg, and A. Wikerstal, Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 665 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Slavik, J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, and E. Brynda, Sens. Actuators B 74, 106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Childers, B. A.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Coen, L. J.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Coffet, N. C.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Cook, A. L.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Ctyroky, J.

R. Slavik, J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, and E. Brynda, Sens. Actuators B 74, 106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diamond, J. K.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Ecke, W.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Froggat, M. E.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Geiger, H.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goloborodko, V.

Greve, J.

R. G. Hiedeman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 12, 205 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hiedeman, R. G.

R. G. Hiedeman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 12, 205 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

R. Slavik, J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, and E. Brynda, Sens. Actuators B 74, 106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

Houska, M.

E. Brynda, M. Houska, A. Brandenburg, and A. Wikerstal, Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 665 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, M. M. Ohn, M. Leblanc, and R. M. Measures, Smart Mater. Struct. 7, 248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huynh, P. T.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Johnson III, L. H.

T. O’Brien, L. H. Johnson III, J. L. Aldrich, S. G. Allen, L. T. Liang, A. L. Plummer, S. J. Krak, and A. A. Bioarski, Biosens. Bioelectron. 14, 815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keren, S.

Kooyman, R. P. H.

R. G. Hiedeman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 12, 205 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krak, S. J.

T. O’Brien, L. H. Johnson III, J. L. Aldrich, S. G. Allen, L. T. Liang, A. L. Plummer, S. J. Krak, and A. A. Bioarski, Biosens. Bioelectron. 14, 815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leblanc, M.

S. Huang, M. M. Ohn, M. Leblanc, and R. M. Measures, Smart Mater. Struct. 7, 248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levit, B.

Liang, L. T.

T. O’Brien, L. H. Johnson III, J. L. Aldrich, S. G. Allen, L. T. Liang, A. L. Plummer, S. J. Krak, and A. A. Bioarski, Biosens. Bioelectron. 14, 815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Measures, R. M.

S. Huang, M. M. Ohn, M. Leblanc, and R. M. Measures, Smart Mater. Struct. 7, 248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J. P.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Mueller, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muhammad, F. A.

F. A. Muhammad and G. Stewart, Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 705 (1992).

O'Brien, T.

T. O’Brien, L. H. Johnson III, J. L. Aldrich, S. G. Allen, L. T. Liang, A. L. Plummer, S. J. Krak, and A. A. Bioarski, Biosens. Bioelectron. 14, 815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohn, M. M.

S. Huang, M. M. Ohn, M. Leblanc, and R. M. Measures, Smart Mater. Struct. 7, 248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Y. T.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Plummer, A. L.

T. O’Brien, L. H. Johnson III, J. L. Aldrich, S. G. Allen, L. T. Liang, A. L. Plummer, S. J. Krak, and A. A. Bioarski, Biosens. Bioelectron. 14, 815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riley, E. M.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Rosenthal, A.

Schroeder, K.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Sirkis, J. S.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Slavik, R.

R. Slavik, J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, and E. Brynda, Sens. Actuators B 74, 106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, G.

F. A. Muhammad and G. Stewart, Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 705 (1992).

Stover, S. K.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Vipavetz, K. G.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Volanthen, M.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wells, J. E.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Wikerstal, A.

E. Brynda, M. Houska, A. Brandenburg, and A. Wikerstal, Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 665 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willsch, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Woodman, K. L.

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Zhang, L.

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 191, 181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biosens. Bioelectron.

T. O’Brien, L. H. Johnson III, J. L. Aldrich, S. G. Allen, L. T. Liang, A. L. Plummer, S. J. Krak, and A. A. Bioarski, Biosens. Bioelectron. 14, 815 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Brynda, M. Houska, A. Brandenburg, and A. Wikerstal, Biosens. Bioelectron. 17, 665 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Optoelectron.

F. A. Muhammad and G. Stewart, Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 705 (1992).

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, and J. P. Dakin, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2076 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, and A. Andreev, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Opt. Commun. 191, 181 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series

J. P. Moore, B. A. Childers, M. E. Froggat, A. L. Cook, N. C. Coffet, L. J. Coen, J. K. Diamond, P. T. Huynh, E. M. Riley, S. K. Stover, K. G. Vipavetz, J. E. Wells, K. L. Woodman, C. D. Armstrong, J. S. Sirkis, Y. T. Peng, in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, Vol. 33 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), p. 43.

Sens. Actuators B

R. Slavik, J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, and E. Brynda, Sens. Actuators B 74, 106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Hiedeman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, Sens. Actuators B 12, 205 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smart Mater. Struct.

S. Huang, M. M. Ohn, M. Leblanc, and R. M. Measures, Smart Mater. Struct. 7, 248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic description of a 3-D distributed evanescent-field fiber Bragg sensor. The interrogated volume is bounded by the penetration depth of the evanescent field, the mode-field diameter, and the coherence length of the measurement, lc.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic description and (b) a measured scanning electron microscope image of the fiber sensor cross section.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement of the effective refractive-index change caused by placement of four droplets with different concentrations of glucose on the same fiber sensor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evaporation of a water droplet as a function of time. The droplet shrank through evaporation from 1.8 to 1 mm after 16 min. After 18 min the droplet disappeared.

Equations (1)

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