Abstract

A new design of a highly nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber (HNDSF) with an effective area of 9.3 µm2 is presented. The three-dimensional beam propagation method combined with the Gaussian approximation method is used to analyze the new HNDSF. This innovative HNDSF has a unique triple-cladding structure that can offer not only a large nonlinear coefficient but also low attenuation, low splicing, and bending losses. It is a suitable candidate to implement an all-fiber wavelength converter by four-wave mixing.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2003

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Nakajima and M. Ohashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 492 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Yu and P. Jeppesen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, H. Liu, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, Opt. Commun. 177, 225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1994

K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 992 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Ankiewicz and G. D. Peng, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Akasaka, N.

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishokawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Vol. 2 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), p. 115.

Ankiewicz, A.

A. Ankiewicz and G. D. Peng, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Belardi, W.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Breuer, D.

Chung, K. W.

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, H. Liu, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, Opt. Commun. 177, 225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ishokawa, S.

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishokawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Vol. 2 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), p. 115.

Jeppesen, P.

J. Yu and P. Jeppesen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwada, T.

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishokawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Vol. 2 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), p. 115.

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 992 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kindt, S.

Kotaki, Y.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, P.

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, H. Liu, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, Opt. Commun. 177, 225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuwatsuka, H.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, H. Liu, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, Opt. Commun. 177, 225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lorattanasane, C.

K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 992 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, M.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

K. Nakajima and M. Ohashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 492 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, M.

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishokawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Vol. 2 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), p. 115.

Obermann, K.

Ohashi, M.

K. Nakajima and M. Ohashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 492 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishokawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Vol. 2 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), p. 115.

Onishi, M.

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishokawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Vol. 2 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), p. 115.

Peng, G. D.

A. Ankiewicz and G. D. Peng, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

Petropoulos, P.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reichard, K.

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, H. Liu, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, Opt. Commun. 177, 225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simoyama, T.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, E.

E. Yamashita, Analysis Methods for Electromagnetic Wave Problems (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1996).

Yin, S.

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, H. Liu, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, Opt. Commun. 177, 225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Yu and P. Jeppesen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yusoff, Z.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Simoyama, H. Kuwatsuka, B. E. Little, M. Matsuda, Y. Kotaki, and H. Ishikawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu and P. Jeppesen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 833 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, K. Furusawa, P. Petropoulos, Z. Yusoff, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi and C. Lorattanasane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 992 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakajima and M. Ohashi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 492 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Commun.

S. Yin, K. W. Chung, H. Liu, P. Kurtz, and K. Reichard, Opt. Commun. 177, 225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Onishi, T. Okuno, T. Kashiwada, S. Ishokawa, N. Akasaka, and M. Nishimura, in European Conference on Optical Communications, Vol. 2 (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1997), p. 115.

E. Yamashita, Analysis Methods for Electromagnetic Wave Problems (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Newly designed refractive-index profile with an optimized triple-cladding structure for a HNDSF: R1=1.8 µm, R2=2.385 µm, R3=3.119 µm, R4=4.19 µm, Δ1=2.833%, Δ2=-0.381%, Δ3=-0.276%, Δ4=-0.256%, α=4.0.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional plot of the normalized electric-field distribution by the 3-D BPM with the Gaussian approximation method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3-D contour plots of the normalized electric-field distribution obtained by the 3-D BPM with the Gaussian approximation method for (a) the SMF-28 and (b) the newly designed HNDSF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

MFD as a function of operating wavelength for the newly designed HNDSF and the HNDSF in Ref. 6.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Simulated Fiber Performances of the New HNDSFa

Equations (3)

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nr=nc1-2Δ1rR1α1/2rR1ncl1-2Δ21/2R1rR2ncl1-2Δ31/2R2rR3ncl1-2Δ41/2R3rR4nclrR4.
ΨR=exp-γ0R2R02RR0R0Rexpγ0-0.5-2γ0-0.5RR0RR0,
ψx,y,z+Δz=exp-jΔz2×t2t2+k02nx,y,z021/2+k0nx,y,z0+k0δnx,y,zexp-jΔzk0δnx,y,z×exp-jΔz2t2t2+k02nx,y,z021/2+k0nx,y,z0+k0δnx,y,zψx,y,z,

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